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Flashcards in Major DNA Viruses Deck (56)
1

Describe the characteristics of Parvovirus: B19.

ss
linear DNA
naked
icosahedral

2

How is parvovirus transmitted?

respiratory
oral secretions

3

What is the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19?

infects mitotically active erythroid precursor cells in bone marrow

2-phase disease
1. lytic: viremia, flu-like symptoms, viral shedding
2. non-infectious immune response

4

What are the clinical manifestations of parvo?

"slap cheek"
erythematous
lacy reticular maculopapular rash

5

What are complications of parvovirus B19?

intrauterine infection may lead to hydrops fetalis

6

Describe the characteristics of Adenovirus.

ds
non-enveloped
linear
DNA

7

How are adenoviruses transmitted?

*Respiratory
- inhalation of respiratory droplets
- across eye by direct contact
GI
-fecal-oral route

8

What is the pathogenesis of adenoviruses?

-infect mucoepithelium in tissues
- infect adenoids, tonsils, respiratory epithelium, Peyer's patches, intestinal epitheia

9

Which Ig is involved to resolve adenovirus?

IgG

10

Adenovirus proteins interfere with immune defenses by blocking ?

IFN
T-cells

11

Adenovirus has what oncogenes?

promote cell growth
EIA >> inactivates pRB (retinoblastoma)
E1B>> inactivates p53

12

What are the clinical syndromes of Adenovirus infection?

Acute Febrile Pharyngitis
Pharyngoconjunctival fever
Acute respiratory disease
Other: laryngitis, croup, brionchiolitis
Epidemic karatoconjunctivitis "shipyard eye"
cervititis, urethritis
Acute gastroenteritis (infants)

13

What are the characteristics of papillomaviridae (HPV)?

ds
non-enveloped
circular
small

14

What is the incubation period for papillomaviridae (HPV)?

2 weeks to 1+ years

15

What are common diseases of papillomaviridae (HPV)?

plantar warts
anogenital warts (HPV 6/11)
Cervical cancer (HPV16/18)

16

What layer of the skin does papillomaviridae (HPV) develop?

basal cells of the dermal layer via L1 VAP/integrins

17

What are epithelial spikes referred to as?

papillomatosis

18

In what layer are prickle cells present? prickle layer?

stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum

19

In papillomaviridae (HPV), E6 binds to ___________ and activates ___________ and suppresses ____________.

p53
activates telomerase
suppresses apoptosis

20

in papillomaviridae (HPV) E7 binds to ___.

p105RB

21

What laboratory tests would you use to diagnose papillomaviridae (HPV)?

Cytology: Koilocytotic cells
In situ DNA probe analysis
PCR

22

What is the treatment of papillomaviridae (HPV)?

removal
-cryotherapy, electrocautery
-interferon, imiquimod or stripping with duct tape

23

What vaccinations are available for papillomaviridae (HPV)?

Gardasil (tetravalent HPV6,11,16,18)
Cervarix (divalent HPV16,18)
9-26 years of age
3 doses (initial, 2 mos, 6 mos)

24

What are the characteristics of herpesvirus (HSV, VZV)?

ds
enveloped
linear
large

25

How is herpesvirus (HSV, VZV) transmitted?

requires inoculation of virus-containing body fluids
sites: oral, ocular, genital, mucosa, respiratory tract, blood stream

26

What are the clinical presentations of HSV-1?

lesions on oropharynx
cold sores
fever blisters

27

What are the clinical presentation of HSV-2?

lesions on genitalia
(can be spread without genital lesions)

28

Where do herpesvirus (HSV, VZV) go latent?

nerve ganglia

29

How are HSV 1/2 transmitted?

close contact
STD

30

How is VZV transmitted?

respiratory
close contact

31

What are primary manifestation of HSV-1?

gingiovostomatitis - children(fever, malaise, lesions)

pharyngitis or tonsillitis - adults

32

What are secondary/recurrent manifestations of HSV-1?

cold sore
keratoconjunctivitis (eye)
Herpetic Gladiatorium
Herpatic Whitlow (fingers)

33

What are 3 separate phases of HSV?

establishment
maintenance
reactivation

34

What triggers can reactivate HSV?

stress
UV light
infection
menstruation
decreased immunity

35

How is recurrence suppressed for HSV?

strong cellular immune response

36

HSV-1 can be responsible for (encephalitis/meningitis)?

encephalitis

37

What are some HSV complications?

perinatal transmission
encephalitis
meningitis
(if immune suppressed - pneumonia, mucocutaneous lesions)

38

How would you diagnose HSV 1/2?

clinical appearance
PCR of CSF for HSV encephalitis

39

Why is HSV difficult to prevent?

many people shed asymptomatically

40

What is the treatment for HSV?

valacyclovir
acyclovir
famciclovir

41

In what form is VZV reactivated?

shingles

42

What can trigger VZV reactivation?

old age
decreased immunity
local injury

43

How would shingles present?

acute pain
redness of dermatome
rash
post-herpatic neuralgia (PHN) can be prolonged

44

How would you diagnose VZV?

clinical presentation
3 types of lesions simultaneously
- maculopapular
- vesicular
- scabs

45

What treatments are available for VZV?

chicken pox - symptomatic
Zoster rash - acyclovir
Zoster PHN - tricycle antidepressant

46

What are the characteristics of poxviridae?

ds DNA
linear
complex symmetry
cytoplasmic replication

47

How is poxviridae transmitted?

respiratory droplets
fomites

48

How does poxviridae present?

basophilic inclusion bodies

49

What treatments are available for poxviridae?

freezing
electric cautery
chemical agents

50

What are the characteristics of Hepadnaviridae (HBV)?

ds (partially)
enveloped
circular DNA

51

How is Hepadnaviridae (HBV) transmitted?

***minute amount can transmit***
blood
bodily fluids
perinatal (during birth or through milk)
(once it enters bloodstream it travels to the liver to infect hepatocytes)

52

Describe replication of Hepadnaviridae (HBV)?

DNA virus but includes RNA intermediate
encodes reverse transcriptase (RNAd-DNA pol)

53

What are the clinical manifestations of Hepadnaviridae (HBV)?

hepatitis
excretion of bile pigments
-bilirubin accumulation (Jaundice)

54

During which phase of chronic HBV would treatment be an option?

immune active

(not indicated during immune tolerant or inactive phase)

55

What are the treatment options for Hepadnaviridae (HBV)?

Active vaccine (0,1,6 mos)

Post:
supportive
HBV immunoglobin (HBIG)
IFNa
Lamivudine

56

How would you diagnose Hepadnaviridae (HBV)?

liver function test (ALT>AST)
Jaundice (30%)
RUG discomfort
Antibody detection