Flashcards in categories of pain Deck (25)
what are the 3 main categories of pain?
somatic, visceral, neuropathic
what arises from skin,muscles and skeletal structures (musculo-skeletal pain)
where are nociceptors located for somatic pain
skin and joint surfaces
examples of somatic pain
surgical incisions, burns, sprains, bone fracture
what arises from internal organs of the main body cavities
where are nociceptors located for visceral pain?
within body organs and internal cavity
what are examples of visceral pain
pyometra, ascites, constipation, FLUTD
what is neuropathic pain?
pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system
what can neuropathic pain affect?
muscle control, temperature sensation, position sensation and pain sensation
where may the neuropathic pain originate from?
peripheral or central nervous system
what are 3 purposes of adaptive pain?
1. the body's central processes is operating normally
2. identifiable noxious event with stimulation of nociceptive system
3.warning of impending or actual tissue damage
what are 3 examples of adaptive pain
surgery, inflammation, trauma/injury
what is maladaptive pain
the pain is still there after the injury has healed
what might not be working correctly in maladaptive pain
CNS is not properly processing the pain
what is wind-up pain
bombardment of the spinal cord with chemical transmitters
what is allyodynia?
pain resulting from normally painless stimuli
what is hyperalgesia?
heightened sense of pain to noxious stimuli
what 3 things does preemptive analgesia help?
1. provoides therapeutic intervention
2.prevents/minimizes sensitization to noxious stimulus
3.prevents adaptive pain to maladaptive pain
what is acute pain based on?
2.extent of surgery/injuries
3.duration of analgesia
what is chronic pain based on?
1. cause of pain
2. degree of pain
3.responsiveness to therapy
4.daily log completed by owners
5. periodic evaluation by the vet
what is the SDS (Simple descriptive scale) (Pros and cons)
1. has categories of pain intensity and each description assigned a number (patients pain score)
2. pro: simple to use
3. cons: lacks sensitivity
what is the VAS (Visual analog scale + pros/cons)
1. a 100mm straight line representing the entire spectrum of pain
2. pros: no descriptive terms or assigned numbers
3. cons: observer's variability in the interpretation
what is DIVAS
-an expansion of the VAS which includes dynamic (the animal is expected to move) and interactive *the wound in palpated) observations
- observe both undisturbed of the animal and then handling and palpation of the painful area
what is the NRS (numeric rating scal)
-multiple categories to evaluate patients behaviors, similar to the VAS (choosing a rating similar)