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Flashcards in categories of pain Deck (25)
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1

what are the 3 main categories of pain?

somatic, visceral, neuropathic

2

what arises from skin,muscles and skeletal structures (musculo-skeletal pain)

somatic pain

3

where are nociceptors located for somatic pain

skin and joint surfaces

4

examples of somatic pain

surgical incisions, burns, sprains, bone fracture

5

what arises from internal organs of the main body cavities

visceral pain

6

where are nociceptors located for visceral pain?

within body organs and internal cavity

7

what are examples of visceral pain

pyometra, ascites, constipation, FLUTD

8

what is neuropathic pain?

pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system

9

what can neuropathic pain affect?

muscle control, temperature sensation, position sensation and pain sensation

10

where may the neuropathic pain originate from?

peripheral or central nervous system

11

what are 3 purposes of adaptive pain?

1. the body's central processes is operating normally
2. identifiable noxious event with stimulation of nociceptive system
3.warning of impending or actual tissue damage

12

what are 3 examples of adaptive pain

surgery, inflammation, trauma/injury

13

what is maladaptive pain

the pain is still there after the injury has healed

14

what might not be working correctly in maladaptive pain

CNS is not properly processing the pain

15

what is wind-up pain

bombardment of the spinal cord with chemical transmitters

16

what is allyodynia?

pain resulting from normally painless stimuli

17

what is hyperalgesia?

heightened sense of pain to noxious stimuli

18

what 3 things does preemptive analgesia help?

1. provoides therapeutic intervention
2.prevents/minimizes sensitization to noxious stimulus
3.prevents adaptive pain to maladaptive pain

19

what is acute pain based on?

1.health status
2.extent of surgery/injuries
3.duration of analgesia

20

what is chronic pain based on?

1. cause of pain
2. degree of pain
3.responsiveness to therapy
4.daily log completed by owners
5. periodic evaluation by the vet

21

what is the SDS (Simple descriptive scale) (Pros and cons)

1. has categories of pain intensity and each description assigned a number (patients pain score)
2. pro: simple to use
3. cons: lacks sensitivity

22

what is the VAS (Visual analog scale + pros/cons)

1. a 100mm straight line representing the entire spectrum of pain
2. pros: no descriptive terms or assigned numbers
3. cons: observer's variability in the interpretation

23

what is DIVAS

-an expansion of the VAS which includes dynamic (the animal is expected to move) and interactive *the wound in palpated) observations
- observe both undisturbed of the animal and then handling and palpation of the painful area

24

what is the NRS (numeric rating scal)

-multiple categories to evaluate patients behaviors, similar to the VAS (choosing a rating similar)

25

what is VRS (variable rating scale)

values are assigned to several designated clinical criteria, the sum of which gives the pain score
-melbourne/glassgow pain score