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Flashcards in recognizing and effect of pain Deck (35)
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1

definition of pain?

an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage

2

pain is the ____ vital sign

4th

3

what is an abnormal posture behavioural characteristic associated with pain

hunched up "praying position"

4

what is an abnormal gait behavioural characteristic associated with pain

stiff, partial weight bearing on injured limb

5

what is an abnormal movement behavioural characteristic associated with pain

thrashing, restless, no movement when not sleeping

6

what is an vocalization behavioural characteristic associated with pain

screaming, whining, crying

7

list 7 examples of physiologic characteristics associated with pain

1.tachypnea/panting
2. tachycardia
3.mydriasis
4.hypertension
5.increased temp
6.pale mm
7.increased serum cortisol and epinephrine

8

which systems are affected if not treated properly

gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic

9

what is hypoxia

not enough oxygen going everywhere/ organs

10

what gets released when an animal experiences pain

catecholamine (a hormone)

11

which sympathetic events happen when the release of catecholamine

tachycardia, hypertension

12

what is a common example of cardiac arrhythmia

VPC (Ventricular Premature Contraction) view on a ECG

13

for metabolic effects in regards to pain what happens?
for increasing

causes it to increase its production of catabolic hormones (hormones that breaks things down and gives out energy)

14

what is a antidiuretic hormone

causes water retention in the body

15

what is a glucagon

a hormone that raises bloodsugar level

16

what is cortisol

a 'stress hormone' which is responsible for blood pressure and sugar

17

what happens when there is too much cortisol

may have sleep destruction, hyperglycemia, hypertension, tachycardia

18

for metabolic effects in regards to pain what happens?
for decreases

the pain can cause the body to decrease production of anabolic hormones (hormones that build and consume energy)

19

what is insulin?

a hormone that helps regulate/decrease blood sugar level

20

what 3 hormonal effects when you have an increased catabolic and decreased anabolic hormones

causes a negative systemic complications such as
-delayed healing
-growth and development disturbances
-gastric ulcers

21

what can happen in regards to respiratory effects with pain

-increased respiratory rate
-decreased in oxygenation
-dyspnea
-effort

22

what is nociception

the neural process of encoding and processing of the noxious stimuli (it is the detection of actual or potential tissue damage)

23

what 3 things can noxious stimuli be?

chemical, thermal, mechanical

24

what is nociception initiated by?

nociceptors - neural receptors that receive the signal from the stimuli

25

what are the 4 stages of nociception

1.transduction
2.transmission
3.modulation
4.perception

26

what is transduction

-the first stage
-the noxious stimulus switch from physical energy to electrical activity

27

what are the two major types of nerve fibres on nociceptors

a-delta
c-fibre

28

what is a-delta

a nerve fibre that is fast conduction myelinated neuron, responsible from localize and sharp stimulus

29

what is c-fibre

a nerve fibre that slow conducting unmyelinated neuron, responsible for poorly localized, dull stimulus

30

what is transmission

the propagation of nerve impulse - the electrical signals now start travelling
-2nd stage