Cell Biology of Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Biology of Nervous System Deck (65)
1

what were the two original theories as to what the nervous system was? What one is correct

Ramon y Cajal - system of individual cells that communicate - this is correct

Camimllo Golgi - interconnected city of cells

2

what are nerve cells effectively

electrical cells

3

what do nerve cells create

AP's

4

what are the two ways nerve cells communicate

chemically and electrically

5

what is the CNS and what does it do

CNS - Braina nd spinal cord
process info
transport thro higher centres

6

what is the PNS and what does it do

Peripheral Neves outwit CNS
colect info sensory from periphery from enviro and back to CNs and back

7

what re neurons

building blocks of nervous system act as link in chain

8

what are processes

important functioning unit which allow communication

9

what nervous system has more processes

cNS more dendrites

10

what are glial cells

support cells

11

why do nerve cells need support cells

very delicate and help with function etc haha

12

how do nerve cells communicate

by secretion

13

what are the approximation of neutrons and glial cells

100 billion neurons with X10 more supporting glial cells

14

what is a neon a modified version of

secretory cell modified

15

what transports the neurtotrans

microtubules in axon

16

what are some parts of basic neurone cell structure

dendrites
nucleus
cell body
axon hillock
axon

17

how is the cytoplasm packed

very densely packed cyto a lot going on

18

what does the nerve cell body contain

rER nd ribosomes = proteins and mems
create cell process and vesicles

19

how are neurons classified

number of processes

20

what are the classification

unipolar
pseudo unipolar
bipolar
multipolar

21

what are pseudounipolar

one process no dendrites associated very rare to see fused dendrites

22

what is unipolar

a single process but no dendrites

23

when a single dendrite and the axon fuse during development

pseudounipolar

24

what are bipolar axons

an axon and the one dendrite

25

what is an example of a bipolar axon

special senses - eye, ear, nose

26

are bipolar axons common

not very more so than unipolar

27

what si the most common axon

multipolar

28

what is multipolar

many dendrites and one axon

29

what is a pyramidal cell an example of

multipolar, in cerebral cortex a lot of communication in CNS in brain

30

what do interneurons do

very short axons communication interconnecting cells

31

what are synapses

specialised intercellular gaps

32

what are the types of synapse

neuron - neuron axodendritic
neuromuscular junctions

33

what is the axon end bulb

the site of chemical neurotrans release

34

what is anterograde and retrograde movement

anterograde - from cell body down microtubules to end synapse
retrograde- back to axon

35

what moves with anterograde trans

neurotransmitters

36

what moves with retrograde trans

mito, dammaged mem to cell body

37

how do synapse vesicles throw out contents

exocytosis

38

what does each vesicle add to the presynaptic membrane

tiny lumps add to membrane not good if too much

39

what are the stages of vesicle secretion

vesicle tether to membrane then dock then fuse nd release

40

how are membranes recycled

using clatheri baskets

41

what process does clatherin baskets use to recycle excess membrane

endocytosis

42

what kind of movement does the clatherin basket use

retrograde movement

43

what is the other method of preventing too much build of presyn mem

kiss and run

44

what is the kiss and run method

the vesicle docks an releases some product but not all. then closes and vesicle leaves

45

which method has a larger peak of product

fully docking and release not kiss and run

46

how are th dendrites described

as a dendritic tree as process branch

47

what does more dendritic spines mean

more interaction with surrounding cells

48

what happens with repeated stimulation to dendrite

modification of dendritic spines

49

what s modification of dendritic spines called

long term potentiation

50

what is long term potentiation an example of

learning in the CNS

51

what doe myelin do

facilitate conduction as is an insulating coat

52

what si myelin structure along the axon like

wraps around th axon in internodes with discontinuous nodes of ranvier between internodes

53

whats the difference of the myelination of the CNS and PNS

CNS - oligodendrocyte 1:many
PNS - Schwan cells 1:1

54

what is an astrocyte

star like
strutural, metabolic, mechanical support of neurons

55

what is and oligodendrocyte

myelination of axons in CNS

56

what is microglia

aka macrophages
scavengers that phagocytose foreign matter

57

what are perivascular cells

similar to microglia but near blood vessels

58

what are schwann cells

myelination and trophic support of PNS
also involved in growth and repair

59

what are activated T lymphocytes

enter CNS for surveillance ensuring only 'self' cells

60

what are ependymal cells

line cavities , modified epithelia

61

what are support cells called

glial cells

62

what are some examples of glial cells

astrocytes
microglia
activated t lymphocytes
oligodendrocyte
schwann cells
ependymal cells
perivascular cells

63

what does the blood brain barrier do

protects brain from potentially toxic substances
maintain fluid enviro for neurons and glia

64

what do the tight junctions of the BB barrier do

restrict access to large molecules

65

what helps transfer important metabolites form blood to neurons

astrocyte end foot process in BB Barrier