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Flashcards in Cell injury & death Deck (33)
1

List 3 common causes of reversible cell injury

trauma (concussion, frost bite)
hypoxia
ischemia

2

What can cause hypoxia?

(Don't confuse with ischemia)
decreased availability of O2
loss of oxygen carrying capacity of blood (RBC)

3

Differentiate ischemia from hypoxia.

Ischemia - absence of oxygen and nutrients
Hypoxia - absence of oxygen

4

List the two ways cells can die.

apoptosis
necrosis

5

(T/F) All cells can undergo apoptosis.

True

6

Is inflammation seen during apoptosis?

No

7

Where is apoptosis commonly seen physiologically?

Physiologic
- embryogenesis constituent feature
- hormone induced changes
- mild trauma or injury removing nonfunctioning cells

8

Where is apoptosis seen pathologically?

Pathologically
- some tumors
- chemotherapy & radiotherapy
- immune reactions usually by cellular mechanisms
- atrophy terminal event
- graft vs. host disease
- some viral diseases

9

Apoptosis is induced by what 4 events?

1. calcium sensitive endonuclease leading to pyknosis
2. transglutaminase activity causes cytoplasmic atrophy
3. phagocytes bleb
4. gene activation via protein syntehesis of bcl-2, c-myc and p53 promoting apoptosis

10

What happens to the cell after pyknosis?

karyorrhexis

11

Death by apoptotic mechanisms.

aging

12

What are the 4 major forms of necrosis?

coagulative necrosis
liguification necrosis
fat necrosis
caseous necrosis

13

What does the type of necrosis depend on?

type of tissue and agent

14

Coagulative necrosis is seen in hypoxic death in all tissues except?

brain

15

Two common settings for liquefactive necrosis

brain infarct and tissue/brain abscess

16

What is one of the leading causes of infantile death?

brain trauma

17

Define fat necrosis.

Saponification of fat cells with calcification due to enzymatic breakdown of lipases. Form of dystrophic calcification. "soap deposits"

18

What is the most common cause of fat necrosis? second?

trauma
alcoholism

19

What kind of trauma causes fat necrosis?

Trauma to a fatty organ

20

Why does resulting trauma in fat necrosis feel hard?

fatty soap; common in breasts

21

Name types of biopsies?

needle biopsy, core biopsy, incisional biopsy (wedge), excisional biopsy

22

Describe caseous necrosis.

amorphous debris and surrounding granuloma

23

What is caseous necrosis a reaction to?

bacteria

24

What is gangrenous necrosis?

Not a distinct type but a combo pattern; applied to hypoxic limbs, combo of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis

25

Coagulative necrosis due to

ischemia causes cell death and bacteria capitalizing on

26

Fibrinoid necrosis

accumulation of eosinophilic amorphous proteinaceous material in tissue matrix
staining pattern reminiscent of fibrin

27

What are the risks of angioplasty?

procedural, hemorrhagic, and reperfusion injury; arthrosclerosis can be dislodged

28

Would you use angioplasty for a middle cerebral artery?

Not if there is liquifactin necrosis in the brain; can cause hemorrhage

29

What type of necrosis might be found in the feet of a diabetic?

Gangrenous necrosis

30

What represents irreversible cellular damage?

nuclear pyknosis

31

What is the most commonly occluded artery in the brain?

middle cerebral artery

32

What is a likely pathologic event from an occluded MCA?

cerebral softening from liquefactive necrosis

33

Blood culture with Strep. viridans. 1 cm vegetation on mitral valve. Pathologic changes?

Necrosis