Flashcards in Cells of the Nervous System Deck (24):
This is the RECEIVING END of a neuron, specialized for EXCITATION.
Dendrite *Fig 3.5 p.57*
This is the part of the neuron that CONTROLS the METABOLISM of the cell.
Soma (cell body) *Fig 3.5 p.57*
This is the part of the neuron that DELIVERS IMPULSES and it is specialized for CONDUCTION.
Axon *Fig 3.5 p.57*
This is the area of a neuron between the cell body and the axon where NEURAL IMPULSES are GENERATED.
Axon Hillock *Fig 3.5 p.57*
This is the swelling at the end of an axon.
Terminal Bouton (axon terminal) *Fig 3.5 p. 57*
This is the FATTY INSULATION around many axons and aids in conduction.
Myelin Sheath *Fig 3.5 p.57*
True or False: the myelin sheath is only formed inside the CNS.
FALSE the myelin sheath is formed BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE of the CNS
True or False: neurons with myelin sheath conduct faster than nerve cells lacking a myelin sheath.
TRUE nerve cells LACKING myelin sheath conduct SLOWER than nerve cells WITH myelin sheath which conduct much FASTER
Myelin sheath is interrupted at regular intervals by _____________.
The Nodes of Ranvier
These cells occur INSIDE the CNS.
Glial: astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
GLIAL CELLS perform all of the FOUR following ACTIONS:
1.) Provide NOURISHMENT for neurons
2.) Provide SUPPORT for neurons
3.) PROTECT and INSULATE axons
4.) LAY DOWN the MYELIN SHEATH
*Fig 3.9 p.60*
These are SATELLITE CELLS that occur OUTSIDE of the CNS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
SCHWANN CELLS perform the THREE following ACTIONS in the PNS:
1.) PROTECT and INSULATE neurons
2.) LAY DOWN the MYELIN SHEATH
3.) Involved in the REGENERATION of DAMAGED NERVE FIBERS
*Fig 3.9 p. 60*
This neuron is FOUND IN SENSORY NERVES subserving somethesis and kinesthesis. It is connected by the neck of the cell body.
Unipolar Neuron *Fig 3.8 p. 59*
This type of neuron is FOUND IN THE EYE and it is CONNECTED directly TO THE CELL BODY.
Bipolar Neuron *Fig 3.8 p. 59*
This is a MULTIPOLAR NEURON that is found in MOTOR NERVES.
Motor Neuron *Fig 3.8 p. 59*
True or False: the motor neuron consists of multiple short axons and a single dendrite.
FALSE, the MOTOR NEURON consists of a SINGLE LONG AXON and a NUMBER OF DENDRITES. *Fig 3.8 p. 59*
This is a MULTIPOLAR NEURON that is LOCATED predominantly in the SPINAL CORD and BRAIN. It is the MOST NUMEROUS of all types of neurons.
True or False: the INTERNEURON is often found by itself.
FALSE, the INTERNEURON can be found BETWEEN OTHER NEURONS
This is a type of INTERNEURON that has a structure ideally suited for TRANSMITTING information over LONG DISTANCES in the CNS such as the top of the brain to the spinal cord.
True or False: PROJECTION NEURONS have short multi-branching dendrites and a long axon.
TRUE *see handout*
This is a type of INTERNEURON that has noticeably SHORT AXONS and PROFUSELY BRANCHING DENDRITES.
Local-Circuit Neuron *handout, Fig 3.8*
True or False: the short axons and branching of dendrites in LOCAL CIRCUIT NEURONS allow it to establish multiple relationships with other neurons.
TRUE, the characteristics of the axons and dendrites in LOCAL CIRCUIT NEURONS allow it to establish MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS with other neurons.