Flashcards in Muscles Deck (56):
Do SMOOTH MUSCLES contract rapidly or slowly?
True or False: SMOOTH MUSCLE is strongly dependent on the nervous system.
FALSE, smooth muscle is NOT dependent on the nervous system.
True or False: SMOOTH MUSCLE is automatic and involuntary.
Where is CARDIAC MUSCLE found?
Does CARDIAC MUSCLE contract rapidly or slowly?
True or False: CARDIAC MUSCLE is not strongly dependent upon the nervous system.
True or False: SKELETAL MUSCLE is involved in the movement of the tongue and eyes.
These MUSCLES react QUICKLY, they are VOLUNTARY and strongly DEPENDENT UPON the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
What are the FOUR (4) types of SKELETAL MUSCLES?
These SKELETAL MUSCLES act to BEND digits, limbs and body.
These SKELETAL MUSCLES act to STRAIGHTEN out digits, limbs and body.
FLEXOR skeletal muscles REACT more _________ than do EXTENSOR muscles which react _________.
Flexor = RAPIDLY
Extensor = SLOWLY
True or False: extensor muscles can maintain contraction longer than flexor muscles.
EXTENSORS are also called ___________ muscles bc its ACTION OPPOSES the pull of GRAVITY and maintains upright position.
What are ANTAGONIST MUSCLES?
Contraction of one muscle causes another muscle to stretch.
*Fig. 8.10 p. 203*
What are AGONIST MUSCLES?
When muscles CONTRACT TOGETHER in a given body movement requiring several flexor muscles.
This is the CNS ARRANGEMENT where the AGONIST muscle is EXCITED and its ANTAGONIST is INHIBITED.
*Fig. 8.15 p. 206*
This is a SINGLE NERVE CELL and all of the muscle cells it contracts.
*Fig. 8.9 p. 202*
Where are SMOOTH MUSCLES found?
This is the RATIO BETWEEN NUMBER of nerve cell AXONS in a motor nerve and NUMBER of MUSCLE CELLS in the muscle it supplies.
*See Notes For Example*
What is the INNERVATION RATIO of GROSS MOVEMENT of the TRUNK?
What is the INNERVATION RATIO of REFINED MOVEMENT of the FACE?
What does the SIZE of a MOTOR UNIT depend upon?
The KIND OF RESPONSE the muscle will be called to perform.
What is the NEUROTRANSMITTER that is released at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION?
This REFLEX is the CONTRACTION of EXTENSOR muscles in response to a more GRADUAL STRETCHING from the pull of GRAVITY.
*Fig. 8.13 p. 205
The CENTRAL SENSORY AREA of the INTRAFUSAL FIBER consists of a _____________ filled with cell nuclei SURROUNDED BY a ___________ area of LYMPH SPACES.
What is the name of the AREA of the INTRAFUSAL FIBER that consists of a NUCLEAR BAG and the MYOTUBE AREA?
What part of the SENSORY REGION contains SECONDARY FLOWER SPRAY ENDINGS?
The MYOTUBE contains __________________, which are RECEPTORS STIMULATED BY PRESSURE and INHIBIT STRETCH REFLEX.
Secondary Flower Spray Endings
This ORGAN registers TOTAL TENSION in the TENDON.
Golgi Tendon Organ
The GOLGI TENDON ORGAN is STIMULATED by ___________ and/or __________.
Contraction of EXTRAFUSAL muscle fibers from EXTERNAL PULL on tendon.
What action does the GOLGI TENDON ORGAN inhibit?
IMPULSES of the TRUNK and LIMBS originate in area ___ and pass down to the _________.
In regards to TRUNK and LIMBS, what percent of FIBERS of the PYRAMIDAL SYSTEM cross over in the MEDULLA?
What do the 80% of FIBERS of the TRUNK and LIMBS that cross over in the MEDULLA make up?
The Lateral Corticospinal Tract
In regards to TRUNK and LIMBS, what percent of FIBERS of the PYRAMIDAL SYSTEM stay on the SAME SIDE?
The 20% of the TRUNK and LIMB FIBERS that remain on the same side make up the ____________.
Ventral Corticospinal Tract
Where do the fibers of the TRUNK and LIMBS terminate?
Fibers of the TRUNK and LIMBS synapse with ____________.
Alpha Motor Neurons
Impulses of the FACE and HEAD originate in area ___ and pass down ____________.
Cranial Nerve Nuclei V, VII, X and XII
Impulses of the FACE and HEAD terminate in CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI V, VII, X and XII by way of the _______________.
What do fibers of the FACE and HEAD synapse with?
Alpha Motor Neurons
What is the result of DAMAGE to AREA 4?
What is FLACCID PARALYSIS?
MUSCLES remain NORMAL TONE but are POORLY CONTROLLED.
True or False: flaccid paralysis is severe in extremities and the animal is not capable of gross movement.
Flaccid paralysis is severe in extremities BUT animal is still CAPABLE of GROSS MOVEMENT.
This is responsible for VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT.
This is responsible for COORDINATION of MOVEMENT.
What FIVE (5) BRAIN areas are involved in the EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM?
Area 6 of Broadman's Classification
Red Nucleus of the Midbrain
Descending Reticular Formation
What THREE (3) SPINAL CORD TRACTS are involved in the EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM?
What is the result of DAMAGE to AREA 6?
What is SPASTIC PARALYSIS?
The EXTENSOR MUSCLES are continually contracted.
What is the most important factor in coordinated movement?
Inhibition or Restraint
This TREMOR develops when a person holds hands/head still but not when making a skilled movement or sleep.
Tremor at Rest
This TREMOR appears ONLY when a SKILLED MOVEMENT is made and disappears when hands/head are at rest.
The area of the brain affected when TREMOR at REST occurs is ___________.