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Flashcards in Muscles Deck (56):
1

Do SMOOTH MUSCLES contract rapidly or slowly?

Slowly

2

True or False: SMOOTH MUSCLE is strongly dependent on the nervous system.

FALSE, smooth muscle is NOT dependent on the nervous system.

3

True or False: SMOOTH MUSCLE is automatic and involuntary.

TRUE

4

Where is CARDIAC MUSCLE found?

The HEART

5

Does CARDIAC MUSCLE contract rapidly or slowly?

SLOWLY

6

True or False: CARDIAC MUSCLE is not strongly dependent upon the nervous system.

TRUE

7

True or False: SKELETAL MUSCLE is involved in the movement of the tongue and eyes.

TRUE

8

These MUSCLES react QUICKLY, they are VOLUNTARY and strongly DEPENDENT UPON the NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Skeletal Muscles

9

What are the FOUR (4) types of SKELETAL MUSCLES?

Flexors
Extensor
Antagonist
Agonist

10

These SKELETAL MUSCLES act to BEND digits, limbs and body.

Flexors

11

These SKELETAL MUSCLES act to STRAIGHTEN out digits, limbs and body.

Extensors

12

FLEXOR skeletal muscles REACT more _________ than do EXTENSOR muscles which react _________.

Flexor = RAPIDLY
Extensor = SLOWLY

13

True or False: extensor muscles can maintain contraction longer than flexor muscles.

TRUE

14

EXTENSORS are also called ___________ muscles bc its ACTION OPPOSES the pull of GRAVITY and maintains upright position.

Antigravity

15

What are ANTAGONIST MUSCLES?

Contraction of one muscle causes another muscle to stretch.

*Fig. 8.10 p. 203*

16

What are AGONIST MUSCLES?

When muscles CONTRACT TOGETHER in a given body movement requiring several flexor muscles.

17

This is the CNS ARRANGEMENT where the AGONIST muscle is EXCITED and its ANTAGONIST is INHIBITED.

Reciprocal Innervation

*Fig. 8.15 p. 206*

18

This is a SINGLE NERVE CELL and all of the muscle cells it contracts.

Motor Unit

*Fig. 8.9 p. 202*

19

Where are SMOOTH MUSCLES found?

In viscera

20

This is the RATIO BETWEEN NUMBER of nerve cell AXONS in a motor nerve and NUMBER of MUSCLE CELLS in the muscle it supplies.

Innervation Ratio

*See Notes For Example*

21

What is the INNERVATION RATIO of GROSS MOVEMENT of the TRUNK?

1:50

22

What is the INNERVATION RATIO of REFINED MOVEMENT of the FACE?

1:3

23

What does the SIZE of a MOTOR UNIT depend upon?

The KIND OF RESPONSE the muscle will be called to perform.

24

What is the NEUROTRANSMITTER that is released at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION?

Acetylcholine (ACH)

25

This REFLEX is the CONTRACTION of EXTENSOR muscles in response to a more GRADUAL STRETCHING from the pull of GRAVITY.

Stretch Reflex

*Fig. 8.13 p. 205

26

The CENTRAL SENSORY AREA of the INTRAFUSAL FIBER consists of a _____________ filled with cell nuclei SURROUNDED BY a ___________ area of LYMPH SPACES.

Nuclear Bag
Myotube

27

What is the name of the AREA of the INTRAFUSAL FIBER that consists of a NUCLEAR BAG and the MYOTUBE AREA?

Sensory Area

28

What part of the SENSORY REGION contains SECONDARY FLOWER SPRAY ENDINGS?

Myotube

29

The MYOTUBE contains __________________, which are RECEPTORS STIMULATED BY PRESSURE and INHIBIT STRETCH REFLEX.

Secondary Flower Spray Endings

30

This ORGAN registers TOTAL TENSION in the TENDON.

Golgi Tendon Organ

31

The GOLGI TENDON ORGAN is STIMULATED by ___________ and/or __________.

Stretching

Contraction of EXTRAFUSAL muscle fibers from EXTERNAL PULL on tendon.

32

What action does the GOLGI TENDON ORGAN inhibit?

Stretch Reflex

33

IMPULSES of the TRUNK and LIMBS originate in area ___ and pass down to the _________.

4
Medulla

34

In regards to TRUNK and LIMBS, what percent of FIBERS of the PYRAMIDAL SYSTEM cross over in the MEDULLA?

80%

35

What do the 80% of FIBERS of the TRUNK and LIMBS that cross over in the MEDULLA make up?

The Lateral Corticospinal Tract

36

In regards to TRUNK and LIMBS, what percent of FIBERS of the PYRAMIDAL SYSTEM stay on the SAME SIDE?

20%

37

The 20% of the TRUNK and LIMB FIBERS that remain on the same side make up the ____________.

Ventral Corticospinal Tract

38

Where do the fibers of the TRUNK and LIMBS terminate?

Ventral Horn

39

Fibers of the TRUNK and LIMBS synapse with ____________.

Alpha Motor Neurons

40

Impulses of the FACE and HEAD originate in area ___ and pass down ____________.

Cranial Nerve Nuclei V, VII, X and XII

41

Impulses of the FACE and HEAD terminate in CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI V, VII, X and XII by way of the _______________.

Corticalbulbar Tract

42

What do fibers of the FACE and HEAD synapse with?

Alpha Motor Neurons

43

What is the result of DAMAGE to AREA 4?

Flaccid Paralysis

44

What is FLACCID PARALYSIS?

MUSCLES remain NORMAL TONE but are POORLY CONTROLLED.

45

True or False: flaccid paralysis is severe in extremities and the animal is not capable of gross movement.

FALSE,

Flaccid paralysis is severe in extremities BUT animal is still CAPABLE of GROSS MOVEMENT.

46

This is responsible for VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT.

Pyramidal System

47

This is responsible for COORDINATION of MOVEMENT.

Extrapyramidal System

48

What FIVE (5) BRAIN areas are involved in the EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM?

Area 6 of Broadman's Classification
Cerebellum
Basal Ganglia
Red Nucleus of the Midbrain
Descending Reticular Formation

49

What THREE (3) SPINAL CORD TRACTS are involved in the EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM?

Rubrosoinal Tract
Reticulospinal Tract
Vestibulospinal Tract

50

What is the result of DAMAGE to AREA 6?

Spastic Paralysis

51

What is SPASTIC PARALYSIS?

The EXTENSOR MUSCLES are continually contracted.

52

What is the most important factor in coordinated movement?

Inhibition or Restraint

53

This TREMOR develops when a person holds hands/head still but not when making a skilled movement or sleep.

Tremor at Rest

54

This TREMOR appears ONLY when a SKILLED MOVEMENT is made and disappears when hands/head are at rest.

Intention Tremor

55

The area of the brain affected when TREMOR at REST occurs is ___________.

Basil Ganglia

56

The area of the brain that is affected when INTENTION TREMOR is present is ___________.

Cerebellum