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Flashcards in Physiology of the Retina Deck (36):
0

The chemical found in RODS is _____________.

Rhodopsin

1

In regard to RODS ,when struck by light RHODOPSIN breaks down into _________ and ________.

Retinene
Opsin

2

In regards to RODS, with further light exposure, RETNENE is converted to __________.

Vitamin A

3

In regards to RODS, the conversion of RETINENE to VITAMIN A is a ____________ reaction.

Reduction Reaction

4

In regards to RODS, in the DARK, OPSIN TRAPS ________ and it is CONVERTED to _________.

Vitamin A
Retinene

5

In regards to RODS, the process where OPSIN TRAPS VITAMIN A and CONVERTS IT TO RETINENE is a ___________ reaction.

Oxidation Reaction

6

In regards to RODS, with FURTHER EXPOSURE to DARK, RETINENE and OPSIN spontaneously RECOMBINE and form ____________.

Rhodopsin

7

In regards to RODS, when RETINENE and OPSIN recombine to FORM RHODOPSIN, the reaction ______________ and can be utilized to convert more __________ to _________.

Liberates Energy
Vitamin A
Retinene

8

The chemical found in CONES is __________.

Iodopsin

9

In regards to CONES, when struck by LIGHT, IODOPSIN breaks down into ____________ and __________.

Retinene
Opsin

10

In regards to CONES, with FURTHER EXPOSURE to LIGHT, RETNENE is CONVERTED into __________.

Vitamin A

11

In regards to CONES, when RETINENE is converted into VITAMIN A it is a ___________ reaction.

Reduction Reaction

12

In regards to CONES, in the DARK, OPSIN traps __________ and converts it to ___________.

Vitamin A
Retinene

13

In regards to CONES, when OPSIN converts VITAMIN A into RETINENE it is a _________ reaction.

Oxidation Reaction

14

In regards to CONES, with FURTHER EXPOSURE TO DARK, RETINENE and OPSIN spontaneously recombine and form __________.

Iodopsin

15

In regards to CONES, when RETINENE and OPSIN form IODOPSIN, the reaction liberates _________ utilized to convert ________ to RETINENE.

Energy
Vitamin A

16

In MIXED EYES containing both RODS and CONES, the _________ usually outnumber the __________.

RODS outnumber the CONES

*Fig 6.9 p. 139*

17

In what THREE (3) ways do RHODOPSIN and IODOPSIN DIFFER?

1.) IODOPSIN RESYNTHESIZES from retinene and opsin at a much more RAPID rate.

2.) The SPECTRAL ABSORPTION CURVES are different.

3.) The OPSINS of the two are DIFFERENT.

18

The OPSIN of RHODOPSIN is called __________.

Scotopsin

19

The opsin of IODOPSIN is called ___________.

Photopsin

20

True or False: all chemical substances absorb light in the same degree in different parts of the visible spectrum.

FALSE, they absorb light in VARYING degrees.

21

The peak of SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY for RHODOPSIN is around ___________.

500 millimicrons

22

The peak of SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY for IODOPSIN is around ___________.

560 millimicrons

23

Utilizing the ___________ technique, it is possible to measure activity of individual GANGLION CELLS.

Microelectrode

24

What are the TWO (2) kind of UNITS associated with GANGLION CELLS?

Dominators
Modulators

25

These UNITS of GANGLION CELLS have BROAD spectral sensitivity.

Dominators

26

These UNITS of GANGLION CELLS have a NARROW spectral sensitivity and only respond in a RESTRICTED part of the visible spectrum.

Modulators

27

What are the TWO (2) types of DOMINATORS?

SCOTOPIC Dominator
PHOTOPIC Dominator

28

SCOTOPIC DOMINATORS have a peak of SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY around ___________.

500 millimicrons

29

PHOTOPIC DOMINATORS have a peak SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY around ___________.

560 millimicrons

30

What are the FOUR (4) MODULATORS?

Blue
Green
Yellow
Red

31

BLUE MODULATORS = ____________ millimicrons.

475

32

GREEN MODULATORS = ____________ millimicrons.

530

33

YELLOW MODULATORS = ____________ millimicrons.

580

34

RED MODULATORS = ____________ millimicrons.

600

35

This occurs when MODULATOR UNITS show TWO (2) PEAKS, as though they represent the _________ of two DIFFERENT RECEPTORS.

Coupling