Ch. 1 & 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 1 & 2 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 & 2 Vocab Deck (39):
1

the scientific study of life

biology

2

new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

emergent properties

3

a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

eukaryotic cell

4

a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclose organelles

prokaryotic cell

5

a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine; capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins

DNA

6

discrete units of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some cases)

genes

7

the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences

genome

8

a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics

natural selection

9

recorded observations

data

10

a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations

inductive reasoning

11

a tentative answer to a well-framed question, narrower in scope than a theory and subject to testing

hypothesis

12

a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise

deductive reasoning

13

an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested

controlled experiment

14

an explanation that is broad in scope, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence

theory

15

representations of a theory or process

models

16

the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic research

technology

17

any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactions

element

18

a substance of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

compound

19

elements indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts

trace elements

20

the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element

atom

21

subatomic particles having no electrical charge (neutral) with a mass of 1.7 x 10^-24 g, found in the nucleus of an atom

neutrons

22

subatomic particles with a single positive electrical charge, with a mass of 1.7 x 10^-24g, found in the nucleus of an atom

protons

23

subatomic particles with a single negative electrical charge and a mass about 1/2000 that of a neutron or proton; move around the nucleus of an atom

electrons

24

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

mass number

25

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol

atomic number

26

one of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass

isotopes

27

an isotope that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy

radioactive isotope

28

electrons in the outermost electron shell

valence electrons

29

the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time

orbital

30

a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons

covalent bonds

31

a type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds

structural formula

32

a type of molecular notation representing the quantity of constituent atoms, but not the nature of the bonds that join them

molecular formula

33

a covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity; the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive

polar covalent bond

34

a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity

nonpolar covalent bond

35

starting material in a chemical reaction

reactants

36

material resulting from a chemical reaction

products

37

in a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time

chemical equilibrium

38

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

molecule

39

descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation

evolution