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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Intro To Patho Deck (72):
1

Physis

Nature

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Pathology

Study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of organs, tissues, cells, and bodily fluids

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Physiology

Study of mechanical, physical, and biochemical fxns of living organisms

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Pathophysiology

Study of altered health

Study of abnormalities in physiologic functioning of living beings

Study of:
1) etiology
2) pathogenesis
3) clinical manifestations of disease

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Etiology

What causes a disease or reasons for it occurring

Is the first step in the pathophysiologic process

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Etiology can be: (3)

1. Idiopathic
2. Iatrogenic
3. Multifactorial

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Etiology -> idiopathic

Cause is unknown

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Etiology -> Iatrogenic

Cause is the result of an unintended or unwanted medical treatment

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Etiology -> Multifactorial

Has multiple etiologic factors that contributes to its development

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Etiologic factors : Examples (4)

1. biologic agents (bacteria, viruses -> such as PNA, Meningitis, HIV)

2. Physical forces (trauma, burns, radiation) skin cancer from UV sunlight, broken bones and cuts


3. Chemical agents (poisons, alcohol)
Poisons are more direct
Alcohol can lead to a host of conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cancers of the stomach
and mouth, alcohol leads to more insidious processes

4. Nutritional excesses or deficits

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Pathogenesis

Development of disease from the initial etiology to the ultimate clinical manifestations of that disease

Comprised of risk factors, precipitating risk factors, and mechanisms that lead to clinical manifestations

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Risk factors

Factor when present increases the likelihood of disease

Identification is important for disease prevention

Focus of epidemiology

Modifiable vs. non-modifiable

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Modifiable risk factor

Something that we can address or change in an individual

Ex: If we can help a person quit smoking we can decrease their risk for lung cancer

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Non-modifiable risk factor

Factor not controllable

Ex: Age

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Precipitating factors

Triggers that promote the onset of clinical manifestations

Allergic reaction to cats can trigger an asthma attack

Pts allergic to sulfa drugs- trigger an allergic reaction if given bactrim which contains a sulfa drug, an antibiotic

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Risk factors vs. precipitating factors

Risk factors lead to disease
Precipitating factors lead to manifestations when somebody already had the disease

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Human Diversity

1) Cultural considerations
2) age and biologic factors linked
3) race/ethnic differences
4) socioeconomic status
5) gender differences
6) situational differences
7) time variations

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Human diversity -> cultural considerations

Each culture defines health and illness in a manner that reflects their experience

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Human diversity -> age and biological factors linked

A normal value for a person at one age may not be normal for a person at another age

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Human diversity -> race/ethnic differences

Relevant in both health and disease

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Human Diversity -> socioeconomic status

Lower SES have poorer health and health outcomes

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Human diversity -> gender differences

Relevant in both health and disease

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Human diversity -> situational differences

Determine whether a derivation from normal should be considered abnormal or an adaptation mechanism

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Human diversity -> time variations

May impact how the body responds from day to night, or at varying times

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Sx

Subjective feeling of abnormality in the body

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Signs

Objective or observed manifestations of disease

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Syndrome

A set of signs and sx not yet determined to delineate a disease

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Types of Clinical Manifestations

1) local vs. systemic
2) acute ( first few days/weeks) vs. chronic (longer than 6 months) (asymptomatic)
Ex: Hepatitis C -> period of being asymptomatic then if enough liver damage may start having sx
3) remissions vs. exacerbations
Period of no sx vs. flaring up of sx

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Diagnosis

Medical, nursing, and collaborative

Ex: PNA, inability to clear lungs, things that teams need to work together in order to diagnosis

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Treatment

1) medical, nursing, and collaborative interventions
2) eliminate and reduce cause
3) eliminate and reduce clinical manifestations

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Sources of evidence (5)
(Most preferred to least preferred)

1) Primary research - large sample size
2) secondary data analysis
3) meta-analysis
4)practice experience
5) expert opinion

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Evidence-based practice

Practice of caring for others in health and illness that is cognizant (aware) of the most current knowledge in the health professions

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Levels of prevention - primary

To help prevent someone from getting the disease

-> altering susceptibility; reducing exposure to susceptible persons

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Levels of prevention - Secondary

Early detection and screening

Find the disease early before it causes any problems and help get rid of it or address it to prevent any further complications

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Levels of prevention - tertiary

Rehabilitation, supportive care, reducing disability, and restoring effective functioning following disease


Person already has disease , will treat them to help prevent them from getting worse, give them the best functioning quality of life

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Epidemiology terms: Incidence

New cases over a time period

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Epidemiology terms: prevalence

Existing cases over a time period

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Epidemiology terms -> reliability

Same results when repeated

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Epidemiology terms-> validity

Measuring what was intended

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Epidemiology terms -> sensitivity

Correctly identifies a condition

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Epidemiology term -> specificity

Correctly excludes a condition

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Epidemiology term -> predictive value

whether the observation/test can predict disease or condition

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Epidemiology terms -> morbidity

Causes disease, illness, consequences

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Epidemiology -> mortality

Causes death

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Pathos

Suffering

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State the World Health Organization definition of Health

"state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity"

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Morphology

The study of the physical form and structure of an organism, or the form and structure of a particular organism

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Histology

The branch of anatomy that deals with the minute (microscopic) structure, composition, and function of cells and tissue.

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Lesion

Any wound, injury, or pathologic change in body tissue

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Syndrome

A complex of signs and symptoms that occur together to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality.

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Morbidity

A diseased condition or state; the relative incidence of a disease or of all diseases in a population.

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Congenital conditions may be caused by:

1. genetic influences
2. environmental factors
EX: viral infections in the mother, maternal drug use, irradiation, or gestational position in utero

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Acquired defects

caused by events that occur after birth
EX: injury, exposure to infectious agents, inadequate nutrition, lack of oxygen, inappropriate immune responses, neoplasia

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Many diseases are thought to be the result of a genetic _____ and an ____ event that serve as a trigger to initiate disease development.

predisposition; environmental

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a normal value represents the test results that fall within the bell curve or the ___ ___

95% distribution

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a test that is 95% specific correctly identifies :

The other 5% are:

95 of 100 normal people


false-positive results

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preclinical stage is when the disease is not clinically evident and:

is destined to progress to clinical disease

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Subclinical disease: is not clinically apparent and:

is not destined to become clinically apparent

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a cohort study is also called a:

longitudinal study

Ex: Framingham Study: studied the characteristics of ppl who would later develop coronary heart disease + Nurses' Health Study

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prognosis refers to the

probable outcome and prospect of recovery from a disease

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State the World Health Organization definition of Health:

Health = "State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity"

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Signs + Symptoms =

Clinical Manifestations

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Nursing Diagnosis
Medical Diagnosis

Nursing: human response to illness
Medical DX: example: PNA
WE AS NURSES are concerned about their inability to cough, clear their lungs, or adequately oxygenate them

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Collaborative Diagnosis

things that teams need to work together in order to diagnosis

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Examples of Primary Prevention:

immunizations, dental sealants, use of condoms, education on skin cancer prevention

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Examples of Secondary Prevention:

skin cancer screening, DRE (digital rectal exam), PSA, pap smear, breast self exam, pregnancy test

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Examples of Tertiary Prevention:

outreach programs, physical therapy, tetanus after stepping on a rusty nail

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What is a clinical course?

a clinical course describes the evolution of a disease; a disease can have an acute, subacute, or chronic course

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A subacute disease is:

intermediate or between acute and chronic; It is not as severe as an acute disease but not as prolonged as a chronic disease

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Preclinical stage =

the disease is not clinically evident but is destined to progress to clinical disease
Ex: hepatitis B - it is possible to transmit virus during the preclinical stage

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subclinical disease =

not clinically apparent and is not destined to become clinically apparent ; it is identified through culture and antibody tests; EX: TB - evidence of presence is established through skin tests

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a clinical disease =

manifested by signs and sx