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Flashcards in EXAM 2 TB Deck (33):

The causative agent for tuberculosis is _ _ which is transmitted through __ __ from persons that undergoing __ infection

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

airborne droplets



Tuberculosis occurs more frequently with: (4)

1. Persons living in crowded conditions
2. People with immunodeficiency or HIV infection
3. People with chronic alcoholism, malnourished
4. People who are suffering from chronic disease which can lead to chronic inflammation and decreased immune function


When we first inhale that mycobacterium tuberculosis in our lung, we have our __ __ getting ready to start

primary infection


When we get that bacteria in there, our body is going to have an __ __

inflammatory response


IF we have __ __, if we have __ __ __ , our body is going to try to fight it somewhat

high resistance; normal immune function


We are going to have our delayed __ __ __ reaction kick in which is going to show as __ when we get that PPD test

type IV hypersensitivity


The __ are going to go to __ __ which are going to initiate that type IV immune response

bacilli ; lymph nodes


For those with __ __ and good __ __, there are going to be __ that form as the body tried to fight that M. tuberculosis

high resistance; immune function


When that tubercle forms, what kinds of things are going to be in there? (3)

1. There's going to be cells that are dying, some necrosis
2. Inflammatory products
3. Body's leukocytes


We have difficulty trying to totally eradicate it from the body. Eventually we will form __ and wall off the __ . This is called a __ __. Our body is going to make new types of __ __ in order to form __ and wall off the bacteria.

granulomas; bacteria ; Ghon complex
epithelial cells; granulomas


If we stay healthy and are not immunocompromised, then we are going to successfully have it walled off. If we have immune suppression, then that walled off bacteria can __ __ and break forth again through these complexes leading to a __ __ or __.

come back; secondary infection; reinfection


If we have __ __ or __ __ __, we are initially infected by that tuberculosis then we can have __ occur

low resistance; poor immune function ; cavitation


We are undergoing __ __ when under cavitation

active infection


Cavitation can also be seen in __ __ or __

secondary infection; reinfection


When we get to that active infection stage, that is when we can:

spread it to other people!


The bacilli can remain dormant for years and then just come out again when we have __ __ __

low immune function


In active infection, the organism is __ and forming a large area of __

multiplying; necrosis


This is causing __ __ __ of lungs or __

large open areas; cavitations


Cavitations promote spreading of the other parts of the lung such as the __ __ or even through the __ and to other parts of the body

pleural cavity; bloodstream


__ __ or __ __ will show some cavitations

Radiographic findings; x rays


During active infection, we will have a __ __ __

positive sputum culture


If we have a patient with TB, they are going to be in the _ __ __ and we will be wearing our ___ ___

negative pressure room; N-95 masks


Many people with TB are __. After a long period of time and in the presence of __ __, they may have __ __ __.

chronic inflammation
general systemic manifestations


What are some of the general systemic manifestations of TB? (7)

1. Malaise
2. Anorexia and accompanying weight loss
3. Fatigue
4. Chest pain
5. Low-grade fever (not a high fever)
6. Classic sx: night sweats
7. Chronic cough possibly with bloody sputum


What does PPD stand for?

purified protein derivative


A positive PPD for tuberculin skin test indicates that we had __ or a __ __ at some point in time

exposure; primary infection


Person has to go get a __ _ __ to see if they have any type of active infection

chest x ray


We can check:
to determine if they have an active infection

1. sputum culture and sensitivity
2. acid fast sputum test
3. nucleic amplification of that sputum


If person has an active infection, we have to put them on __ __ __ __

active TB infection precautions


Treatment of tuberculosis can use a combination of __-__ drugs depending if they have an active infection or __ __ and we're trying to treat it. It can range from __ __ to _ __ .

2-4; latent tuberculosis; 6 months ; 1 year


There are a lot of issues now with __-__ __ __ from people not taking their drugs for the full __ __ to __

multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
6 months; year


We have gone to a lot of __ __ __ or (__) so we make people come in and we:

directly observed therapy (DOT)
watch them take those medications so that we know that they are taking them


We can follow up with people that are not showing up to make sure that they are taking all o the drugs and we are not developing and further __ __

drug resistance