Ch. 5 Cellular changes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Cellular changes Deck (31):
1

Atrophy examples (9)

1) broken bone - muscle/bone atrophy
2) post injury/fall - muscle atrophy
3) spinal cord injury - muscle atrophy due to neuromuscular dysfunction
4) bone can atrophy
5) brain tissue can atrophy - cerebral atrophy
6) atrophy of glands
7) vaginal atrophy
8) use of prednisone or steroids can lead to atrophy of adrenal glands
9) steroid use can lead to atrophy of the testes

2

Hypertophy

Increase in the size of cells due to an increase in functional demand

Results in enlarged tissue mass

3

Hypertrophy example

Cardiomegaly -> results in less space for blood to flow through the atria and ventricles - severely restrict cardiac output

4

Hyperplasia

Increase in the number of cells due to an increase in functional demand and/or increased stress

Results in enlarged tissue mass

5

Hyperplasia- examples

On toes or any place where anything is rubbing on the body

Can lead to calluses of the skin

Gingival Hyperplasia: gums are overriding teeth, side effects of drug use (cyclosporine which is used to treat infection)

6

Metaplasia

Mature cell type is replaced by a different normal mature cell type, typically due to increased stress

More severe change but is reversible!!

7

Metaplasia - examples

1) trachea of a smoker -> pseudostratified columnar epithelium is replaced by growth of squamous epithelium

Is reversible if smoker quits !

2) bladder stones can change the epithelium of the bladder

3) GERD can change the epithelium of the esophagus

8

Dysplasia

Change in cell size, shape, uniformity, arrangement and/or structure typically due to increased stress

9

Dysplasia - examples

1) pap smears - cervical tissue
Pre-screening for cervical cancer
2) anemia
3) leukemia

10

Anaplasia

CANCEROUS, NOT REVERSIBLE

Undifferentiated cells with variable nuclear and cell structures

Can imply more advanced cancer

11

Neoplasm

CANCEROUS, NOT REVERSIBLE

"New growth" - commonly called tumor

12

Etiologies of cell injury (6)

1) ischemia and hypoxic injury
Loss of blood flow and lack of oxygen

Ischemia can cause more damage

2) free radical injury
3) nutritional injury
4) infectious and immunologic injury
5) chemical injury
6) physical and mechanical injury

13

First stage of reversible cell injury is:

Hydropic swelling

14

Hydropic swelling

Cellular swelling due to the accumulation of water

Results from the malfunction of the Na/K pump
If that's not working, sodium ions will build up in cell and water follows therefore resulting in swelling

Pump fails due to loss of energy or ATP

Will lead to increase in size and weight of that organ

15

Second stage of reversible cell injury:

Intracellular Accumulations

Mostly reversible

1) normal body substances such as lipids, proteins, melanin can build up in body

2) faulty metabolism (genetic) : ex: tay-sachs disease

3) exogenous products - coal dust enters the lung cells and the lung cannot process the coal dust and so it can build up inside the cell

16

Free Radical Formation

1) an electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms that contain an unpaired electron

2) unstable, formed by oxidation/reduction process

3) cause damage by:
Lipid peroxidation
Attacks proteins disrupting transporting channels

17

Irreversible Cell Injury

Necrosis

18

Necrosis

1) usually occurs as a consequence of ischemia or toxic injury

2) characterized by cell rupture, spilling of contents into extracellular fluid, and inflammation

19

4 types of necrosis

1) coagulative
2) liquefactive
3) fat
4) caseous

20

Coagulative Necrosis

A process that begins with ischemia/hypoxia then to loss of energy then to inefficiency of Na/K pump,
Na builds up inside cell, water flows into cell, cell compensates loss of energy through glycolysis to make ATP, byproduct is acid, acid buildup inside cell, cell ruptures, content spills

21

Liquefactive necrosis

Once cell is damaged and releases its contents, the dead cells start to be dissolved by lysosomal enzymes that are released.
These enzymes can also damage surrounding healthy tissue as well. When this is going on, will form abscesses or cysts from that dissolved dead tissue.

22

Fat necrosis

Death of adipose tissue mostly due to trauma

23

Caseous Necrosis

Lung damage secondary to tuberculosis

24

Consequences of necrosis

1) loss of function
2) inflammatory response (can be localized or systemic) fever, fatigue, malaise, body aches
3) foci of infection
4) release of intracellular proteins
-> serum levels used as markers of cell death
-> troponin levels, myoglobin levels

25

Tissue death on a larger scale

Gangrene

-> cellular death in a large area of tissue

-> results from interruption of blood supply to a particular part of the body

-> 3 types: dry, wet, and gas

26

Dry gangrene

Form of coagulative necrosis

Slow spreading, someone who has poor circulation to lower extremities, diabetic pts, pts with peripheral arterial disease

Characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue separated by a line of demarcation from healthy tissue




27

Wet gangrene

Form of liquefactive necrosis typically found in internal organs but also can be seen outwardly

Spreads very quickly

28

Gas Gangrene

Results from infection of necrotic tissue by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium), which is characterized by formation of gas bubbles in damaged tissue

29

Apoptosis

Occurs in response to injury that does not directly kill the cell, but triggers intracellular cascades that activate a cellular suicide response

Not always a pathologic process
Is a cascade signaling process
Does not cause inflammation or any further damage!

30

Atrophy

Decrease in the size of cells due to a decrease in functional demand

Results in reduced tissue mass

31

infarction

Necrosis or death of tissues due to local ischemia resulting from obstruction of blood flow