EXAM 2 Eye Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM 2 Eye Disorders Deck (83):
1

A large majority of individuals have some type of issue with __ __ __

errors in refraction

2

Errors in refraction

when the eye is not focused properly and we are having issues seeing something near or far (myopia, hyperopia)

3

If we are looking at hyperopia, the anterior to posterior dimension of the eyeball is too __ so the image would focus behind the retina or __ to the retina.

short

posterior

4

Someone with hyperopia is going to need ___ lens.

CONVEX

5

In myopia, the anterior to posterior dimension of the eyeball is too __ so the focal point is in the ___ of the retina. The person will need ___ lens.

long

front

CONCAVE

6

Myopia - person can see __ and not __

CLOSE , far

7

Hyperopia - __ object is clear, __ object is fuzzy

FAR, close

8

Presbyopia is a condition commonly associated with __ that occurs when the __ becomes a little less __. This makes it difficult to read things __.

aging; lens ; flexible

close

9

If somebody has myopia or hyperopia AND presbyopia, it is best to get __.

bifocals

10

Strabismus is often called __ __ however it is more visible than __.

lazy eye; amblyopia

11

Strabismus is any abnormality of eye __ or __ that results in a loss of __ __

coordination; alignment; binocular vision

12

Strabismus may be related to __ of some of the __ __

paralysis; eye muscles

13

There are also non-paralytic causes of strabismus where there are some __ eye muscles leading up to that eye pulling __. The eye is going to be moving towards the __ muscles and away from the __ muscle.

weak; inwards; stronger; weaker

14

There are __ muscles that lead to all of the different movements of our eyes

6

15

Strabismus needs to be treated and corrected b/c that can lead to ___ and __ of __ in the eye that is not corrected

amblyopia; loss; vision

16

Amblyopia is often called __ __ too

lazy eye

17

Amblyopia is when there is diminished vision without any detectable __ in the eye

lesion

18

An issue with amblyopia when it occurs at a young age: is when one eye is blurred and the other eye is seeing normal view, the brain is going to __ __ the __ side and it is going to only process input from the __ view

block out; blurred

normal

19

If amblyopia occurs over a long period of time, the brain will eventually:

block out the signal permanently from the eye

20

If amblyopia is not treated, it can lead to __ __ of the eye

permanent blindness

21

In amblyopia, there is nothing wrong with the __ or __ of the eye itself; it is now the __ that goes to the __ that is now blocked off permanently and person will be __ .
This condition should be treated very __.

structure; function
signaling; brain
blind
EARLY

22

Diplopia

double vision

23

In diplopia, __ __ is not quite lined up so we are seeing two of things

binocular vision

24

Diplopia can be __, which can be caused by __. It can also be caused by being __ such as using __ __ for too long which strains the muscles and leads to muscles not __ __ __.

transient; drugs

tired; reading glasses; lining up properly

25

Diplopia can have more permanent issues like when:
somebody has some __ issues whether it is __ or __-__.
In this case, you will need some __ __ or __ to tighten up the muscle.

muscle; paralytic; non-paralytic

corrective lens; surgery

26

Nystagmus is the __ __ __ of eye movements that happen when someone focuses on an object but they're looking way off to the __ or __, __ or ___. So we are at the extremes of our __ __.

involuntary rhythmic oscillation; left; right; up; down ; peripheral vision

27

Nystagmus relates to our __ __ and or __ __ and all that stimulation that goes together

semicircular ducts; vestibular apparatus in our ears

28

Nystagmus does not necessarily signal any type of __ especially if it occurs way out in the __

disease; periphery

29

If someone is having nystagmus when they are trying to focus normally on objects or stable objects, then that could be an issue that needs to be addressed which could be related to the __ __ in the ear.

vestibular apparatus

30

Ptosis is

sagging/drooping of the upper eyelids

31

Ptosis happens by weakness of the __ __ that holds up eyelid

levator muscle

32

Ptosis often occurs in person with __ __ and __

Bell's Palsy, stroke

33

Entropion and Ectropion relates to the

lower lid

34

Ectropion is when the lower lid is turned _. You can see a lot more of the __ __ of the eye (inner corner angle of the eye)

outward; inner canthus

35

Entropion is when the eyelid is turned __ so the eyelashes are actually resting on and irritating the __ of the eye

inward
sclera

36

In entropion and ectropion, there is going to be __ __, __ and the eye can __ __ especially when we are looking at __

eye irritation, tearing, dry out
ectropion

37

Hordeolum is aka

stye

38

Hordeolum is the infection of the __ __ of the eyelid; can be __ or __ of the eyelid

sebaceous glands; external; internal

39

Chalazion is the chronic inflammation of what is called a __ __ (gland that is arranged vertically within the eyelid near the lashes) inside the eyelid and it's typically a more chronic condition leading to what looks like a constant __ that an individual may have that may need to be addressed surgically

meibomian gland

stye

40

Conjunctivitis can be a __ or __ infection

viral; bacterial

41

Conjunctivitis: viral infection - typically called __ __ (clear, watery discharge). Typically starts in one eye but then is often __ to the other eye through __ __ and __ from wiping one eye and touching the other eye.
Is VERY __.

pink eye
spread
tissue use; fingers
contagious

42

Conjunctivitis: bacterial infection - caused by bacteria most often __ or __ and leads to a nasty __ __ often drying and crusting around the eyes and the person may wake up and be unable to open their eye cuz it's all crusted shut

gonorrhea; chlamydia ; purulent drainage

43

Conjunctivitis can also occur in children coming through the __ __; that's why we treat eyes after a baby is born through __ __ ; this is a standard practice b/c we don't know the status of the mother; she may have __ or __ that may be __. If left untreated, the infection could lead to __ __ for the child. It is standard practice to apply __ __ that can address any possible bacterial infection

birth canal; vaginal delivery; chlamydia; gonorrhea; asymptomatic; permanent blindness; eye ointment

44

Allergic conjunctivitis has lots of (3) .
This is not an __ and is not __.

1. itchiness
2. redness
3. drainage from the eye similar to what one would see in a viral conjunctivitis

infection; contagious

45

Keratitis:

infection of the cornea

46

Conjunctivitis manifestations (4)

1. watery discharge
2. redness
3. itching
4. light sensitivity (photophobia) - sunglasses on in daylight

47

Ppl with keratitis experience SEVERE __ __ and more SEVERE __

eye pain; photophobia

48

Keratitis is caused by __ __ __ . The individual may have a __ __ or __ __ in the mouth and that is transferred by their fingers or may be from another individual that coughed or sneezed on them and is in their saliva; can happen in the __ __ as well

herpes simplex virus

cold sore; herpes lesion

dental office

49

Keratitis: The herpes simplex virus is going to invade and infect the __.

cornea

50

Keratitis: There is a risk for __ or __ of the cornea due to the damage of the __ process. If that occurs, then __ __ is going to form which is not normal functioning tissue. This is going to interfere with __.

erosion; ulceration; inflammatory

scar tissue; vision

51

Keratitis: can occur from __-__ processes like any __ that may be splashed into the eye or any __ that may get into the eye that are irritating

non-infectious; chemicals; fumes

52

Glaucoma is __ __ __ which leads to damage to the __ __ .

increased intraocular pressure; optic nerve

53

In glaucoma, with the increased pressure in the eye, the _ __ starts to __ and eventually damage and break away from the nerve leading to visual field deficits and eventually total blindness

optic disc; cup

54

Glaucoma: This intraocular pressure buildup can occur b/c there is an issue with __ __ inside the eye (__/__ __) and it can also relate to __. There is a constant ___ and ___ of this fluid that's in the eye and so if we are continuing to build more fluid but it's not draining properly, that can lead to pressure as well

aqueous production (aqueous/vitreous humor) ; outflow

regeneration; recycling

55

What are the two types of glaucoma?

1. Angle Closure
2. Open Angle

56

Angle Closure Glaucoma is an :

emergent condition

57

Open Angle Glaucoma is a __ __ and __ __

slower process; slower damage

58

Glaucoma can be __ or __

congenital; acquired

59

Primary glaucoma =

no evidence of any preexisting ocular conditions
this is the PRIMARY condition

60

Secondary glaucoma = results from some other __ __ of the eye; possibly some __ or some __ that led to ____ that leads to pressure in the eye

inflammatory process
tumors; trauma
bleeding

61

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
In the eye where the cornea and iris meet is an area called a __ __. This network __ up and now that __ ___ cannot adequately drain so that fluid is going to buildup leading to that __ __ __

trabecular network
clogs
aqueous humor
increased intraocular pressure (IOP)

62

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
is a ___ process that is going to lead to __ damage of the __ __. The person is going to start with some vision loss and get progressively worse

slow; slow; optic nerve

63

Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma:
There is this acute, quick blockage of drainage in the __ __ ___. This closure leads to a rapid increase in __. Can result in __ if the issue is not addressed immediately

Canal of Schlemm
IOP
blindness

64

Clinical manifestations of primary open angle glaucoma:
There are not many manifestations __. Eventually there may be appearance of some __ __ in the __ of __ or __. The __ __ may get larger and may start to progress towards the _ of the eye and get bigger until all vision is lost

initially

blind spots; field of vision; periphery

center

65

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
If people are getting screened on a regular basis especially as they get older, part of that regular eye exam involves __ or checking that __ in the eye

tonometry; pressure

66

As with our acute angle closure, there are some __/__ that can be used to relieve __ and open up __ . If they can't clear the clog through meds, __ is an option

medications/drops
pressure; networks
surgery

67

Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
There is going to be such an increase in __ , the individual is going to have __ in the eye. The pupil will __ b/c of that pressure and that stress on the muscles within the __ and the __ .

IOP

pain

dilate; iris; pupil

68

Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
That eye pain may lead to: (4)

This is an emergent condition b/c there can be quick damage to the _ __ leading to blindness

1. larger headache
2. nausea
3. blurred vision
4. rainbows around certain lights they are seeing particularly at night

optic nerve

69

Treatments for Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
(2)

1. Pharmacotherapy like eye drops initially to make sure we are not getting too high of an increase
2. Then surgery

70

Cataracts is an issue with the

lens

71

Cataracts:
The lens develops __ or __ which is going to affect vision pretty much making that vision appear very __.

opacity; clouding
blurry

72

Cataracts:
The blurry vision is going to depend on:
This could be different from __ __ to another and as well as different between the __ __ of an individual

where exactly on the lens this opacity is

one individual

two eyes

73

Cataracts is an issue with _ for the most part.

aging

74

Somebody is more prone to developing cataracts if they: (3)

1. have diabetes
2. is a heavy smoker
3. have had eye trauma or other disorders of the eye

75

Clinical manifestations of cataracts: __ __. This is going to get __ over time as that opacity/cloudiness __ on the lens. This makes it especially difficult for people to __ at night. If you do have older adults with cataracts who still insists on driving, tell them :

blurred vision
darker
increases
drive

to refrain from driving at night

76

Clinical manifestations of cataracts: How quickly that cloudiness progresses just as where that cataract may be varies with

each individual and may vary from eye to eye on the same individual

77

Treatments for cataracts:

ONLY surgery
there is no effective medical treatment (no drugs)

78

Treatment for cataracts: the lens has to be __ and __ (__ __). Physician will cut out __ __ and then do an __ __. If person needs surgery on both eyes, __ __ __ __.

removed; replace (outpatient surgery); clouded lens; do one at a time

79

Macular Degeneration is degeneration of the __ (which is inside the eye to the back and is the central portion of the retinal macula. This is where all of our vision __ are coming and being sent through the __ __ to the __.

fovea
signals; optic nerve; brain

80

What are the two types of macular degeneration?

Dry Macular Degeneration
Wet Macular Degeneration

81

Dry Macular Degeneration occurs due to some __ __ __ called __ (__ __ ) that develops in the area of the __. These deposits start to affect __ __ and start to damage and lead to scar tissue on the __ and damages the central part of the retinal macula.

fatty lipid deposits; drusen; drusen deposits; macula
blood flow; fovea

82

Wet Macular Degeneration is when there are issues with the ____ of the eye where it becomes leaky and then __ gets into that area of the eye leading to damage including pulling that __ __ off the back of they eye

microvasculature
blood
optic disc

83

Dry Macular Degeneration think ___
Wet Macular Degeneration think ___

FAT
BLOOD