Flashcards in EXAM 2 Eye Disorders Deck (83):
A large majority of individuals have some type of issue with __ __ __
errors in refraction
Errors in refraction
when the eye is not focused properly and we are having issues seeing something near or far (myopia, hyperopia)
If we are looking at hyperopia, the anterior to posterior dimension of the eyeball is too __ so the image would focus behind the retina or __ to the retina.
Someone with hyperopia is going to need ___ lens.
In myopia, the anterior to posterior dimension of the eyeball is too __ so the focal point is in the ___ of the retina. The person will need ___ lens.
Myopia - person can see __ and not __
CLOSE , far
Hyperopia - __ object is clear, __ object is fuzzy
Presbyopia is a condition commonly associated with __ that occurs when the __ becomes a little less __. This makes it difficult to read things __.
aging; lens ; flexible
If somebody has myopia or hyperopia AND presbyopia, it is best to get __.
Strabismus is often called __ __ however it is more visible than __.
lazy eye; amblyopia
Strabismus is any abnormality of eye __ or __ that results in a loss of __ __
coordination; alignment; binocular vision
Strabismus may be related to __ of some of the __ __
paralysis; eye muscles
There are also non-paralytic causes of strabismus where there are some __ eye muscles leading up to that eye pulling __. The eye is going to be moving towards the __ muscles and away from the __ muscle.
weak; inwards; stronger; weaker
There are __ muscles that lead to all of the different movements of our eyes
Strabismus needs to be treated and corrected b/c that can lead to ___ and __ of __ in the eye that is not corrected
amblyopia; loss; vision
Amblyopia is often called __ __ too
Amblyopia is when there is diminished vision without any detectable __ in the eye
An issue with amblyopia when it occurs at a young age: is when one eye is blurred and the other eye is seeing normal view, the brain is going to __ __ the __ side and it is going to only process input from the __ view
block out; blurred
If amblyopia occurs over a long period of time, the brain will eventually:
block out the signal permanently from the eye
If amblyopia is not treated, it can lead to __ __ of the eye
In amblyopia, there is nothing wrong with the __ or __ of the eye itself; it is now the __ that goes to the __ that is now blocked off permanently and person will be __ .
This condition should be treated very __.
In diplopia, __ __ is not quite lined up so we are seeing two of things
Diplopia can be __, which can be caused by __. It can also be caused by being __ such as using __ __ for too long which strains the muscles and leads to muscles not __ __ __.
tired; reading glasses; lining up properly
Diplopia can have more permanent issues like when:
somebody has some __ issues whether it is __ or __-__.
In this case, you will need some __ __ or __ to tighten up the muscle.
muscle; paralytic; non-paralytic
corrective lens; surgery
Nystagmus is the __ __ __ of eye movements that happen when someone focuses on an object but they're looking way off to the __ or __, __ or ___. So we are at the extremes of our __ __.
involuntary rhythmic oscillation; left; right; up; down ; peripheral vision
Nystagmus relates to our __ __ and or __ __ and all that stimulation that goes together
semicircular ducts; vestibular apparatus in our ears
Nystagmus does not necessarily signal any type of __ especially if it occurs way out in the __
If someone is having nystagmus when they are trying to focus normally on objects or stable objects, then that could be an issue that needs to be addressed which could be related to the __ __ in the ear.
sagging/drooping of the upper eyelids
Ptosis happens by weakness of the __ __ that holds up eyelid
Ptosis often occurs in person with __ __ and __
Bell's Palsy, stroke
Entropion and Ectropion relates to the
Ectropion is when the lower lid is turned _. You can see a lot more of the __ __ of the eye (inner corner angle of the eye)
outward; inner canthus
Entropion is when the eyelid is turned __ so the eyelashes are actually resting on and irritating the __ of the eye
In entropion and ectropion, there is going to be __ __, __ and the eye can __ __ especially when we are looking at __
eye irritation, tearing, dry out
Hordeolum is aka
Hordeolum is the infection of the __ __ of the eyelid; can be __ or __ of the eyelid
sebaceous glands; external; internal
Chalazion is the chronic inflammation of what is called a __ __ (gland that is arranged vertically within the eyelid near the lashes) inside the eyelid and it's typically a more chronic condition leading to what looks like a constant __ that an individual may have that may need to be addressed surgically
Conjunctivitis can be a __ or __ infection
Conjunctivitis: viral infection - typically called __ __ (clear, watery discharge). Typically starts in one eye but then is often __ to the other eye through __ __ and __ from wiping one eye and touching the other eye.
Is VERY __.
tissue use; fingers
Conjunctivitis: bacterial infection - caused by bacteria most often __ or __ and leads to a nasty __ __ often drying and crusting around the eyes and the person may wake up and be unable to open their eye cuz it's all crusted shut
gonorrhea; chlamydia ; purulent drainage
Conjunctivitis can also occur in children coming through the __ __; that's why we treat eyes after a baby is born through __ __ ; this is a standard practice b/c we don't know the status of the mother; she may have __ or __ that may be __. If left untreated, the infection could lead to __ __ for the child. It is standard practice to apply __ __ that can address any possible bacterial infection
birth canal; vaginal delivery; chlamydia; gonorrhea; asymptomatic; permanent blindness; eye ointment
Allergic conjunctivitis has lots of (3) .
This is not an __ and is not __.
3. drainage from the eye similar to what one would see in a viral conjunctivitis
infection of the cornea
Conjunctivitis manifestations (4)
1. watery discharge
4. light sensitivity (photophobia) - sunglasses on in daylight
Ppl with keratitis experience SEVERE __ __ and more SEVERE __
eye pain; photophobia
Keratitis is caused by __ __ __ . The individual may have a __ __ or __ __ in the mouth and that is transferred by their fingers or may be from another individual that coughed or sneezed on them and is in their saliva; can happen in the __ __ as well
herpes simplex virus
cold sore; herpes lesion
Keratitis: The herpes simplex virus is going to invade and infect the __.
Keratitis: There is a risk for __ or __ of the cornea due to the damage of the __ process. If that occurs, then __ __ is going to form which is not normal functioning tissue. This is going to interfere with __.
erosion; ulceration; inflammatory
scar tissue; vision
Keratitis: can occur from __-__ processes like any __ that may be splashed into the eye or any __ that may get into the eye that are irritating
non-infectious; chemicals; fumes
Glaucoma is __ __ __ which leads to damage to the __ __ .
increased intraocular pressure; optic nerve
In glaucoma, with the increased pressure in the eye, the _ __ starts to __ and eventually damage and break away from the nerve leading to visual field deficits and eventually total blindness
optic disc; cup
Glaucoma: This intraocular pressure buildup can occur b/c there is an issue with __ __ inside the eye (__/__ __) and it can also relate to __. There is a constant ___ and ___ of this fluid that's in the eye and so if we are continuing to build more fluid but it's not draining properly, that can lead to pressure as well
aqueous production (aqueous/vitreous humor) ; outflow
What are the two types of glaucoma?
1. Angle Closure
2. Open Angle
Angle Closure Glaucoma is an :
Open Angle Glaucoma is a __ __ and __ __
slower process; slower damage
Glaucoma can be __ or __
Primary glaucoma =
no evidence of any preexisting ocular conditions
this is the PRIMARY condition
Secondary glaucoma = results from some other __ __ of the eye; possibly some __ or some __ that led to ____ that leads to pressure in the eye
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
In the eye where the cornea and iris meet is an area called a __ __. This network __ up and now that __ ___ cannot adequately drain so that fluid is going to buildup leading to that __ __ __
increased intraocular pressure (IOP)
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
is a ___ process that is going to lead to __ damage of the __ __. The person is going to start with some vision loss and get progressively worse
slow; slow; optic nerve
Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma:
There is this acute, quick blockage of drainage in the __ __ ___. This closure leads to a rapid increase in __. Can result in __ if the issue is not addressed immediately
Canal of Schlemm
Clinical manifestations of primary open angle glaucoma:
There are not many manifestations __. Eventually there may be appearance of some __ __ in the __ of __ or __. The __ __ may get larger and may start to progress towards the _ of the eye and get bigger until all vision is lost
blind spots; field of vision; periphery
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma:
If people are getting screened on a regular basis especially as they get older, part of that regular eye exam involves __ or checking that __ in the eye
As with our acute angle closure, there are some __/__ that can be used to relieve __ and open up __ . If they can't clear the clog through meds, __ is an option
Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
There is going to be such an increase in __ , the individual is going to have __ in the eye. The pupil will __ b/c of that pressure and that stress on the muscles within the __ and the __ .
dilate; iris; pupil
Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
That eye pain may lead to: (4)
This is an emergent condition b/c there can be quick damage to the _ __ leading to blindness
1. larger headache
3. blurred vision
4. rainbows around certain lights they are seeing particularly at night
Treatments for Acute Angle Closure Clinical Manifestations:
1. Pharmacotherapy like eye drops initially to make sure we are not getting too high of an increase
2. Then surgery
Cataracts is an issue with the
The lens develops __ or __ which is going to affect vision pretty much making that vision appear very __.
The blurry vision is going to depend on:
This could be different from __ __ to another and as well as different between the __ __ of an individual
where exactly on the lens this opacity is
Cataracts is an issue with _ for the most part.
Somebody is more prone to developing cataracts if they: (3)
1. have diabetes
2. is a heavy smoker
3. have had eye trauma or other disorders of the eye
Clinical manifestations of cataracts: __ __. This is going to get __ over time as that opacity/cloudiness __ on the lens. This makes it especially difficult for people to __ at night. If you do have older adults with cataracts who still insists on driving, tell them :
to refrain from driving at night
Clinical manifestations of cataracts: How quickly that cloudiness progresses just as where that cataract may be varies with
each individual and may vary from eye to eye on the same individual
Treatments for cataracts:
there is no effective medical treatment (no drugs)
Treatment for cataracts: the lens has to be __ and __ (__ __). Physician will cut out __ __ and then do an __ __. If person needs surgery on both eyes, __ __ __ __.
removed; replace (outpatient surgery); clouded lens; do one at a time
Macular Degeneration is degeneration of the __ (which is inside the eye to the back and is the central portion of the retinal macula. This is where all of our vision __ are coming and being sent through the __ __ to the __.
signals; optic nerve; brain
What are the two types of macular degeneration?
Dry Macular Degeneration
Wet Macular Degeneration
Dry Macular Degeneration occurs due to some __ __ __ called __ (__ __ ) that develops in the area of the __. These deposits start to affect __ __ and start to damage and lead to scar tissue on the __ and damages the central part of the retinal macula.
fatty lipid deposits; drusen; drusen deposits; macula
blood flow; fovea
Wet Macular Degeneration is when there are issues with the ____ of the eye where it becomes leaky and then __ gets into that area of the eye leading to damage including pulling that __ __ off the back of they eye