Ch. 12 Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12 Mechanisms of Infectious Disease Deck (42):
1

Infection = a state of __ __ resulting from __ of __.

tissue destruction; invasion; microorganisms

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Infections can be spread from person to person and those are called

communicable diseases

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Non-communicable infections are called

1. opportunistic infections
(when somebody is immunocompromised)
2. disorders like HIV or any type of treatment such as steroid therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy can lead to opportunistic infections

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Epidemiology

the study of factors/events that influence the transmission of infectious diseases among humans or from nonhumans to humans

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Sporadic

a random person here and there that comes down with that infection

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Endemic

continuous transmission within a population; we're in a specific geographic region ; relatively stable over time.

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Epidemic

We're looking at a much higher than normal transmission and spreading to new geographical areas; it's abrupt, unexpected, incidence is going to rapidly increase over the endemic rates; we've seen this in the latest Ebola outbreak in Wester Africa

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Pandemic

Spread beyond continental borders
ex: HIV/AIDS

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Chain of Infection: what is the chain?

1. infectious agent
2. reservoirs
3. portal of exit
4. means of transmission
5. portal of entry
6. susceptible host

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Chain of infection: infectious agent
What is this? and how can we break this chain?

Our bacteria, virus, etc.
We can break this chain by sterilization.

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Chain of infection: Reservoirs
What is this? and how can we break this chain?

Reservoirs are what holds the infection and keeps it together so then it can be transmitted

Like mosquito breeding in water and passing on malaria

People and equipment can be reservoirs; can hold those microorganisms

we can break the chain by sanitizing our equipment and use antimicrobial drugs on ourselves to eliminate ourselves from becoming reservoirs

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Chain of infection: Portal of Exit:
What is this? and how can we break this chain?

we need the microbe to leave the reservoir so they can pass it onto others:
1. our skin
2. any of our secretions
3. us sneezing on somebody/any excretion that might come out

to break the chain, we cover our mouths when we cough; we get rid of tissue that we've used

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Name the type of modes of transmission:

1. Universal Precautions
2. Contact Precautions
3. Droplet Transmission
4. Aerosol Transmission
5. Vector Borne

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Universal precautions

hand hygiene; not using equipment from one person to another

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Contact precautions

gown + gloves

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Droplet transmission

droplets typically only go a few feet (3-4 feet) and then will fall to the ground and won't cause an issue

wear mask

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aerosol transmission

somebody who has TB; small particles can travel much further and be suspended in air ;

wear N-95 mask

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Vector borne

an insect/animal serves as the intermediate host; mosquitoes in areas with sitting water; the mosquito is the vector that can transmit malaria to an individual; the dog that bites another person may lead to that person getting rabies

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Nosocomial infections are when somebody gets an infection at

the hospital, doctor's office, long term care facilities, nursing homes

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About __ -__% of patients actually get an infection while they are in the hospital b/c we are not doing our appropriate practices

10-15%

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So after that pathogen enters the host, there is an __ __ that occurs . The body starts to recognize it an the immune process starts to kick in. At this point, there are no __ or __ __.

incubation period

local; systemic manifestations

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Then, after incubation period, there is a __ __. This is aka __-__ __. The disease is there and there's a few __ but they are vague and __.

prodromal period
sub-clinical illness
symptoms
systematic

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vague systemic manifestations gradually become __ __ __ and __ __ particularly those of __ so the _, _, _, _, and __ _ __.

We may also be developing __ and __. During the __ __, we have an adequate immune response and we able to eventually defeat the invading organism

greater systemic manifestations;

local manifestations; inflammation; heat; redness; swelling; pain; loss of function

abscesses; pus; clinical illness

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After the clinical illness comes the

convalescent stage - here we will start feeling better, things start to recover although we may still have some general malaise, fatigue, low grade fever until we recover

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Infection getting into the bloodstream:

septicemia

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Specific clinical manifestations:

relates to where the infection might and also what the invading organism is
ex: if we ate some bad food, we may have n/v/d ;
If it is breathed in our respiratory tract, it could be PNA

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Nonspecific clinical manifestations:

general systemic manifestations :
fever
loss of appetite
headache
tiredness
myalgia
general body pain
nausea

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Obvious manifestations

predictable patterns

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Covert manifestations

requiring specific lab testing to detect

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If infection is BACTERIAL, exudates are going to be

purulent, green/yellow, smell

(true if we have a respiratory illness)

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If infection is VIRAL, exudates are

clear or serous ; if we have a respiratory infection and we are coughing and clear maybe white, serous, that is going to be a viral infection like maybe an influenza

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Symptomatology

looking at clinical signs or symptoms and comparing that with what we know happens in certain infectious diseases and diagnose based on that

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what is it called when our WBC counts have increased

leukocytosis

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If it's a bacterial infection, we will see a sharp increase in

neutrophils

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If we have a decrease in WBC or an increase in certain WBCs like our __ ___ , this indicates __ __

T lymphocytes; viral infection

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We can also check __ __ __ to see if somebody has a disease
like HIV

serum antibody levels

we test if they have developed antibodies against the virus

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It is important to remember for children: not to give __ for pain or fever especially if we suspect they have a __ illness; they can get __ __ which can lead to permanent __ and __ damage

ASA

viral

Reye's Syndrome

neurologic; liver

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Influenza = __ infection of the __ cells of the upper respiratory airway.

The __ infects the __ cells leading to cell __ and __ of the tissue in the upper respiratory tract

viral ; epithelial cells

virus; epithelial; necrosis; rupture; necrosis

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There are 3 types of virus that lead to influenza. (Type A, B, C)
Type A: __ __ and __ __ form that we are going to see in the general population; Those annual flu vaccines are going to attack Type _ type of viruses they are expecting for that year.

Type B: is __ and seen in __.

Typce C: __ __ form of influenza

more severe; more common

A

mild; children

very rare

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Influenza is transmitted through __ __
It is viral so the secretions are going to be:

however, somebody that has the flu is more susceptible to getting a __ __ on top of that; If they do, they will have a __/__ sputum that they are going to cough up

respiratory droplets

clear, serous, maybe a little white, but no color

green/yellow

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Local manifestations of influenza:

1. cough
2. sore throat
3. congestion in the nasal passages/ upper airways
4. drainage or secretions that are white, could be thick

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Systemic manifestations include:

1. fever (sometime high fever)
2. chills
3.body aches
4. anorexia (loss of appetite)
5. malaise