Ch. 15 Disorders of the Immune Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 15 Disorders of the Immune Response Deck (32):
1

What are examples of excessive immune responses?

1. Autoimmunity
2. Alloimmunity
3. Hypersensitivity

2

What is an example of deficient immune response?

host defense failure

3

Autoimmunity =

breakdown of self tolerance

4

Alloimmunity =
For ex:

MHC complexes
hyperacute graft rejection, blood transfusion reaction, graft vs. host disease

5

Hypersensitivity Reactions

there is a specific lymphocyte reaction; result in inflammation but differ in mechanism causing injury

6

host defense failure =

compromised immune response; one or more components inactive; immune decline ~50.
can be from alcohol, drugs, and malnutrition;
can be inherited and acquired;
affects lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement proteins

7

Examples of autoimmune disease

Lupus, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects multiple organ systems :
kidneys
lungs
heart
brain
skin
joints
digestive tract

Other examples: Addison's disease
Celiac disease
Graves disease
Hoshimoto's Thyroiditis
Multiple Sclerosis

8

Areas often affected by autoimmune disorders include:

blood vessels
connective tissue
endocrine glands such as the thyroid, pancreas;
joints
muscles
RBCs

9

Things than can be transplanted include:

1. skin
2. bone
3. cornea
4. lungs
5. heart
6. bone marrow

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One type of reaction that occurs when the host or recipient's immune system rejects the graph

host vs. graph disease

(this may occur in bone marrow transplants)

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There are 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions. Types __ ,__ ,__ are mediated by __ produced by __ cells and type __ is mediated by __ cells.

1,2,3 ; antibodies
B; T

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Host defense failure should be suspected with __, ___, __ or __ __.

severe, recurrent, unusual, unmanageable infections

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Type 1 Hypersensitivity are __ __ mediated by __. Rxn typically occurs __-__ min after exposure to the antigen

allergic reactions; IgE

15-30

14

Allergic reactions take many forms including:

1. skin rashes
2. hay fever
3. vomiting
4. anaphylaxis

15

A tendency toward allergic conditions is inherited and referred to as an

atopic hypersensitivity reaction

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Type 1 hypersensitivity begins when an individual is exposed to a specific __ and for some reason develops __ __ from __ cells . These antibodies attach to __ cells at certain locations creating sensitized _ cells.

allergen ; IgE antibodies; B;
mast; mast

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Mast cells are __ __ cells that are present in __ numbers in the __. of the __ and __ tracts.

connective tissue; large; mucosa; respiratory; digestive

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On re-exposure to the same allergen, the allergen attaches to the __ antibody on the mast cell, simulating the release of chemical mediators such as __ from the __ within the mast cells.

IgE; histamine; granules

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The chemical mediators cause an __ rxn involving __ and increased __ __ at the site.

inflammatory

vasodilation
capillary permeability

20

The initial release of histamine also irritates the __ __ and causes __ or __ __, causing __ , __ __, __ __, and __. A more severe reaction is __.

nerve endings; itching; mild pain; hives; runny nose, throat contrition; edema ; anaphylaxis

21

Examples of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions:

seasonal allergies
food allergies such as peanuts, fish
Atopic dermatitis
eczema
bee sting
asthma
drug allergies

22

__ __ can be done to determine the specific cause of an allergy. This procedure involves __ the _ and dropping a small amount of _ __ on the scratch. The site is observed for __ which indicates a __ __ reaction.

Skin test; scratching; skin
purified antigen ; redness; positive skin

23

Pharmacological management of type 1 hypersensitivity include:

1. antihistamines like Benadryl
2. corticosteroids like prednisone
3. Epinephrine is used for acute allergic reactions and can be given subQ or IV
4. Immunotherapy and pharmacological desensitization

24

Type II hypersensitivity is often called :

cytotoxic hypersensitivity

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In type II, the __ is present on the cell membrane; Circulating __ antibodies react with the antigen causing destruction of the cell by __ or by releasing __ __ related to __ __.

antigen ; IgG ; phagocytosis; cytolytic enzymes; complement activation

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Type II hypersensitivity reactions are characterized by __ directed towards __ that are present on the _ __.

antibodies; antigens; cell surface

27

Hyperacute graft rejections =

when the transplanted donor tissue has an antigen that the recipient produces antibodies

28

Myasthenia gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder

29

Type III hypersensitivity : Antigen combines with __ __ __ which is then deposited into tissue often in blood vessel walls and activates the complement system. This process causes __ and __ __. A number of diseases are now thought to be caused by immune complexes including __ __ and __ __.

antibody forming complex

inflammation; tissue destruction; glomerular nephritis; rheumatoid arthritis

30

Examples of type III hypersensitivity:

1. glomerulonephritis: inflammatory renal disorder that typically occurs about 10-14 days after a strep infection
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: inflammatory joint disorder (causes a lot of pain)

31

Type 4 Hypersensitivity:

1. a delayed response by sensitized T lymphocytes to antigens occurs
2. this results in the release of cytokines or other chemical mediators that cause an inflammatory response and destruction of the antigen

32

Examples of Type IV Hypersensitivity:

contact dermatitis - rash that forms with exposure to the skin by plant, oils, chemicals, clothing, cosmetics, dyes, or adhesives

Tuberculin skin test (DELAYED response) aka manatee's test, PPD (the positive test does not necessarily indicate infection but does indicate exposure of the body to TB at some point in time