Flashcards in Ch. 15 Disorders of the Immune Response Deck (32):
What are examples of excessive immune responses?
What is an example of deficient immune response?
host defense failure
breakdown of self tolerance
hyperacute graft rejection, blood transfusion reaction, graft vs. host disease
there is a specific lymphocyte reaction; result in inflammation but differ in mechanism causing injury
host defense failure =
compromised immune response; one or more components inactive; immune decline ~50.
can be from alcohol, drugs, and malnutrition;
can be inherited and acquired;
affects lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement proteins
Examples of autoimmune disease
Lupus, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects multiple organ systems :
Other examples: Addison's disease
Areas often affected by autoimmune disorders include:
endocrine glands such as the thyroid, pancreas;
Things than can be transplanted include:
6. bone marrow
One type of reaction that occurs when the host or recipient's immune system rejects the graph
host vs. graph disease
(this may occur in bone marrow transplants)
There are 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions. Types __ ,__ ,__ are mediated by __ produced by __ cells and type __ is mediated by __ cells.
1,2,3 ; antibodies
Host defense failure should be suspected with __, ___, __ or __ __.
severe, recurrent, unusual, unmanageable infections
Type 1 Hypersensitivity are __ __ mediated by __. Rxn typically occurs __-__ min after exposure to the antigen
allergic reactions; IgE
Allergic reactions take many forms including:
1. skin rashes
2. hay fever
A tendency toward allergic conditions is inherited and referred to as an
atopic hypersensitivity reaction
Type 1 hypersensitivity begins when an individual is exposed to a specific __ and for some reason develops __ __ from __ cells . These antibodies attach to __ cells at certain locations creating sensitized _ cells.
allergen ; IgE antibodies; B;
Mast cells are __ __ cells that are present in __ numbers in the __. of the __ and __ tracts.
connective tissue; large; mucosa; respiratory; digestive
On re-exposure to the same allergen, the allergen attaches to the __ antibody on the mast cell, simulating the release of chemical mediators such as __ from the __ within the mast cells.
IgE; histamine; granules
The chemical mediators cause an __ rxn involving __ and increased __ __ at the site.
The initial release of histamine also irritates the __ __ and causes __ or __ __, causing __ , __ __, __ __, and __. A more severe reaction is __.
nerve endings; itching; mild pain; hives; runny nose, throat contrition; edema ; anaphylaxis
Examples of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions:
food allergies such as peanuts, fish
__ __ can be done to determine the specific cause of an allergy. This procedure involves __ the _ and dropping a small amount of _ __ on the scratch. The site is observed for __ which indicates a __ __ reaction.
Skin test; scratching; skin
purified antigen ; redness; positive skin
Pharmacological management of type 1 hypersensitivity include:
1. antihistamines like Benadryl
2. corticosteroids like prednisone
3. Epinephrine is used for acute allergic reactions and can be given subQ or IV
4. Immunotherapy and pharmacological desensitization
Type II hypersensitivity is often called :
In type II, the __ is present on the cell membrane; Circulating __ antibodies react with the antigen causing destruction of the cell by __ or by releasing __ __ related to __ __.
antigen ; IgG ; phagocytosis; cytolytic enzymes; complement activation
Type II hypersensitivity reactions are characterized by __ directed towards __ that are present on the _ __.
antibodies; antigens; cell surface
Hyperacute graft rejections =
when the transplanted donor tissue has an antigen that the recipient produces antibodies
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder
Type III hypersensitivity : Antigen combines with __ __ __ which is then deposited into tissue often in blood vessel walls and activates the complement system. This process causes __ and __ __. A number of diseases are now thought to be caused by immune complexes including __ __ and __ __.
antibody forming complex
inflammation; tissue destruction; glomerular nephritis; rheumatoid arthritis
Examples of type III hypersensitivity:
1. glomerulonephritis: inflammatory renal disorder that typically occurs about 10-14 days after a strep infection
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: inflammatory joint disorder (causes a lot of pain)
Type 4 Hypersensitivity:
1. a delayed response by sensitized T lymphocytes to antigens occurs
2. this results in the release of cytokines or other chemical mediators that cause an inflammatory response and destruction of the antigen