Ch. 1: Introduction to the Fire Officer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1: Introduction to the Fire Officer Deck (205):
1

The NFPA 1021 standard defines four levels of fire officer.

Fire Officer I, II, III, & IV.

2

Which level of Fire Officer is the first step in a progressive sequence and is generally associated with an officer supervising a single fire company or apparatus?

Fire Officer I

3

Which level of Fire Officer generally refers to the senior non-chief officer level in a larger fire department and can be the overall supervisor of a multiple-unit fire station?

Fire Officer II

4

Which level of Fire Officer generally refer to chief officer positions that might work as a battalion or district chief in a large and possibly as a deputy or assistant chief in a smaller organization?

Fire Officer III

5

Which level of Fire Officer tend to be fire chiefs or hold senior positions in charge of a major component of the fire department?

Fire Officer IV

6

Who is responsible for being a leader and supervisor to a crew of firefighters, managing a budget for the station, understanding the response district, knowing departmental operational procedures, and being able to manage an incident?

A Fire Officer

7

Where does the foundation of company officer practice come from?

World War II combat experience

8

What classification is bestowed upon an individual who supervises a single fire suppression unit or a small administrative group within a fire department?

Fire Officer I

9

How did the US fire service originate?

As communities of citizens who responded when a fire broke out.

10

Although four forms of staffing fire department organizations are commonly used, most discussions divide firefighters into which two categories?

Career and volunteer.

11

Who adopted the formal rank structure of the Roman military, which is an organizational model that is still used by most fire departments?

Corps of Vigiles - fire protectors

12

What event significantly affected the development of both the fire service and fire codes?

Two major fires in 1871 - The Great Chicago Fire and The Peshtigo firestorm.

13

Where was the first fire regulations in North America established when it banned wood chimneys and thatched roofs?

1630 - Boston, MA

14

Who developed the first fire hydrants in 1817?

George Smith - FF in NYC

15

Who developed the first municipal water systems?

The Romans

16

Which national organization writes today's model codes and standards?

NFPA

17

What is the final result called when volunteer committees of citizens and representatives of businesses, insurance companies, and government agencies explore and develop proposals that are debated and reviewed by various groups?

consensus documents

18

Who is accountable to the leader of the governing body, such as the city council, the county commission, the mayor, or the city manager?

The head of the FD - Fire Chief

19

What does the organizational structure of a fire department consists of?

a chain of command

20

What creates a structure for managing the department as well as for directing fire-ground operations?

The chain of command

21

Who is responsible for a single fire company on a single shift?

A supervising officer

22

Who is directly responsible for supervising a fire company on one shift, coordinating all of the company's activities with all other shifts and could also be in charge of all of the companies on one shift in a multiunit fire station?

A managing fire officer

23

What is used to implement department rules, policies, and procedures?

The chain of command

24

Which organizational structure enables a FD to determine the most efficient and effective way to fulfill its mission and to communicate this information to all members of the department?

The chain of command

25

What four management principles are most fire departments structured on the basis of?

1) Unity of Command
2) Span of Control
3) Division of Labor
4) Discipline

26

What is the management concept that each fire fighter answers to only one supervisor, and each supervisor answers to only one boss?

Unity of Command

27

What refers to the maximum number of personnel or activities that can be effectively controlled by one individual?

Span of control. (usually 3 - 7) [Most experts believe should extend no more that 5]

28

What is a way of organizing an incident by breaking down the overall strategy into smaller tasks?

Division of Labor

29

What is used when the specific assignment of a task to an individual makes that person responsible for completing the task and prevents duplication of job assignments?

Division of Labor

30

What encompasses behavioral requirements, such as always following orders from superior officers and performing up to expectations?

discipline

31

What is the set of guidelines that a department establishes for firefighters?

discipline

32

What are the four functions of managements?

Planning, Leading, Organizing, Controlling [PLOC]

33

The four functions of managements were originally identified by:

Henry Fayol

34

What is developing a scheme, program, or method that is worked out beforehand to accomplish an objective?

Planning

35

What includes establishing goals and objectives and then developing a way to meet and evaluate those goals and objectives?

planning

36

What means putting resources together into an orderly, functional, structured whole?

organizing

37

What means guiding or directing in a course of action?

leading

38

What is a complex process of influencing others to accomplish a task?

the act of leadership

39

What is the human side of managing that includes motivating, training, guiding, and directing employees?

leading

40

What means restraining, regulating, governing, counteracting, or overpowering?

controlling

41

What are fire officers implementing when they consider the impact on the budget before making purchases, when they conduct employee performance appraisals, and when they ensure compliance with departmental policies?

the controlling function

42

The four functions of management [PLOC] constitute a continuous cycle;

the are never truly "finished."

43

What are developed by various government or government-authorized organizations to implement a law that has been passed by a government body?

Rules and regulations

44

What are developed to provide definite guidelines for present and future actions?

policies

45

What are written organizational directives that establish or prescribe specific operational or administrative methods to be followed routinely for the performance of designated operations or actions?

SOPs

46

What are ethical choices based on?

the value system

47

What is the key to improving ethical choices?

To have clear organizational values.

48

What is unity of command?

The concept that firefighters answer to only one supervisor

49

_________ means "putting resources together into an orderly, functional, structured whole."

Organizing

50

"Selecting employees who share the values of the organization" describes __________.

ethics

51

IAFC identifies the Fire Ofc. II as a Managing Fire Officer.
Administrative part as:

-Evaluate subordinates job performance
-Correcting unacceptable behavior
-Completing performance appraisal
- Project development
-Divisional Budget
-Purchasing
-Rewarding bids & solicitation
-News releases Prepping
-Reporting to supervisors

52

IAFC identifies the Fire Ofc. II as a Managing Fire Officer. Nonemergency part as:

-Conducting inspections
-Fire code violations
-Reviewing injury & exposure reports
-Identifying unsafe work environments & behavior
-Actions to prevent repeated accidents, injury or exposure
-Pre-incident planning
-Developing Policies & Procedures
-Analyzing reports and data for problems, trends, etc.

53

IAFC identifies the Fire Ofc. II as a Managing Fire Officer. Emergency part as:

-Incident Command System (ICS) use in multi-unit incident.
-Operational planning & deployment
-Determining area of Origin & Preliminary cause
-Post incident analysis

54

Written organizational directives that establish or prescribe specific operations or administrative methods to be followed routinely for the performance of the designated operations or actions

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

55

Directives developed by various government/-authorized organizations to implement a law that has been passed by a governmental body. They don’t leave any room for latitude or discretion.

Rules & Regulations

56

Term suggest that a specific step-by-step procedure that should be followed, but allows for deviation.

Standard Operating Guideline (SOG)

57

Fire Officer Principles and Practice book meets the criteria outlined for which NFPA?

NFPA 1021 Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications for level I & II of the 4 levels

58

What is the Fire Officer I generally associated with?

Supervision of a single fire company or apparatus

59

What is the Fire Officer II generally associated with?

Generally refers to the senior non-chief, and could be overall supervisor of multiple-unit station.

60

What is the Fire Officer III & IV generally associated with?

Generally refers to the senior chief officer positions.

61

The foundation of company officer practice came from?

World War II combat experience

62

What does IAFC call the Fire Officer I

Supervising Fire Officer

63

What part of management is responsible for the conduct of others?

The officer is the part of management responsible for the conduct of others.

64

What part of the family does the Officer play?

The Officer plays the role of the parent.

65

Where did the U.S. Fire Service originate?

The U.S. Fire Service originated as communities of citizens who responded when a fire broke out

66

What is the term “paid on call”

Some departments provide an incentive for fire fighters by paying them for each response, termed “paid on call” or part-time paid personnel.

67

How many forms of staffing used for Fire Departments

-Four forms of staffing fire department
-The main 2 used are career & volunteer.

68

What percent of the calls are fires?

5% of the calls involve actual fires.
2/3 are EMS calls.

69

The Private Industry & non-governmental organizations are the other 2 forms of staffing fire departments. Many are established to handle which fire state/situation?

Incipient fire situations

70

Who created what was probably the first fire department?

n 24 B.C. Augustus Ceaser created what was called “The Familia Publica”, composing of 600 slaves stationed around the city to fight fires.

71

Who were the Corps of Vigiles?

In 60 A.D. the emperor Nero establish this group of 7k free men to fight fire, fire prevention and building inspections. The formal rank structure adopted by them from the Roman military is still used today.

72

The first documented Fire in North America occurred when and in what town?

In Jamestown, Virginia on 1607 the first fire, it almost burned down the entire settlement

73

What North American city in 1630, banned the wood chimney and thatched roofs, establishing the first fire regulation.

Boston, Massachusetts was the first to establish fire regulations.

74

What year did buckets give way to hand-powered pumpers?

In 1720, Richard Newsman developed it in London.

75

When did the Steam-powered pumpers begin to replace hand powered pumpers?

By 1829 the Steam-powered pumpers started to take over hand ones.

76

Who developed the first municipal water system?

The Romans developed the first municipal water system.

77

In 1817, George Smith developed the first hydrant, in what city?

George Smith developed hydrants in New York City.

78

What city built the first fire towers?

Charleston, South Carolina built them to warn the citizens by ringing the community fire bell or church bells.

79

To symbolize the rank of chief also signifies his need to do what?

The rank of chief also signifies the chief’s need to communicate clearly by the Chief’s trumpet or bugle.

80

What has served as an impetus for communities to establish building codes?

Fires have served as an impetus for communities to establish building codes.

81

Who’s in the front lines of ensuring fire codes are obeyed?

Fire officers are often on the front lines of ensuring that the fire codes are obeyed.

82

What does the officer need to know about built-in fire protections systems?

The officer must understand built-in fire protection systems & recognize how they affect firefighting ops.

83

What private industry played a major role in Building Code & Fire Code?

The insurance played a major role in the development of the first model codes, which were purpose to jurisdiction as a proposed minimum standard.

84

Who usually write today’s model codes & standards?

Today’s codes and standards are written by national organizations, such as NFPA.

85

Who adopts NFPA code & and standards into their administrative laws?

Many states and municipalities adopt NFPA code & standards into administrative laws.

86

Who uses a consensus document?

Volunteer committees of citizens and representatives of business, insurance and government explore & develop proposals that are debated and reviewed by various groups, with the final result call Consensus Document to present to the public.

87

What city were insurance companies established?

Fire insurance companies were established in England after the Great Fire of London in 1666, to help residents & business owners to cope with with financial losses.

88

The most important resource on the fire scene remain?

The most important resource on the fire scene remain the knowledgeable, well-trained, physically capable firefighter who have the ability and the determination to attack a fire.

89

Why can a Fire Dept legally enter a locked premise without permission?

Governments-whether municipal, county, state, provincial, or national- are charged with protection the welfare of the public against common threats.

90

What is a Fire Department District?

The Fire Protection District is a special political subdivision that can be established by state or county, with the single purpose of providing fire protection within a defined geographic area.

91

The organizational structure of a Fire Department consist of?

The organizational structure consists of a chain of command.

92

Administrative level officer are called?

Often several levels if administrative fire officers, usually called Battalion Chiefs, or District Chiefs.

93

Unity of command refers to _____.

the principle in which each subordinate reports to only one boss.

94

What type of leadership is used at the Fire Department?

The Fire Department uses paramilitary style leadership.

95

What are the four management principles that most Fire Departments are structured on?

-Unity of Command
-Span of Control
-Division of Labor
-Discipline

96

What does Discipline encompass?

Discipline encompasses behavioral requirements, such as always following orders from superior officers and performing up to expectations.

97

How many form of discipline outline how things are done?

SOP’s, SOG’s Policies & Procedures are all forms of disciplines because they outline how things are to be done.

98

Discipline can be either _____________, when it defines appropriate action or, _______________, when it responds to inappropriate actions of behaviors.

Positive
Corrective

99

List 3 ways of Fire Department organization?

Function
Geography
Staffing

100

In all three types of departments the company officer functions as the?

Staffing coordinator & Gatekeeper
Implements the department rules, regulations and procedures to ensure proper fire company staffing.

101

Under the span of control, what is the maximum amount of people that a fire officer should supervise?

5

102

Officers make work assignments based on?

The company officers needs to make work assignments based on individual qualifications, experience, and capability.

103

The four functions of management identified by Henri Fayol, published in the Bulletin de la Societe de L’Industrie Minerale in 1916 are?

Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling

104

Define Planning:

Developing a scheme, program, or method that is worked out beforehand to accomplish an objective. Planning includes establishing goals & objectives and then developing a way to meet and evaluate those goals & objectives. It also includes emergency activities, such as developing strategies & tactics and an incident plan.

105

When a Fire Officer develops plan to achieve departmental, work unit, and individual objectives. The planning is done in Short-range, Medium-range or Long-range planning. What are the timeframe for each of these?

Short-range extends up to 1 year.
Medium-range covers planning from 1-3yrs in advance.
Long-range covers planning longer than 3yrs in advance.

106

List the emergency activities of Planning.

Planning includes emergency activities, such as developing strategies and tactics, and an incident action plan.

107

Define Organization:

Putting resources together into a orderly, functional, structured whole. The Officer takes the available people, equipment, structure, and time and develops them into a an orderly, functional and structural unit to implement the plan and deliver the expected service.

108

What is the human side of managing?

Leading is the human side of managing.

109

Define Leading:

Guiding or directing in a course of action. Leading is the human side of managing. It includes motivating, training, guiding, and directing employees. When most people think of management they envision this function.

110

What does the act of leading include?

Leading includes, motivating, training, guiding and directing employees.

111

What is the act of Leadership?

Leadership is a complex process of influencing others to accomplish a task.

112

Define Controlling:

Restraining, regulating, governing, counteracting, or overpowering. Fire Officers implement the Controlling functions when they consider the budget before a purchase, conduction employee appraisals, and compliance with departmental policies.

113

List 3 Controlling functions by a Fire Officer.

Budget impact actions
Performance Appraisals
Departmental Policies compliance

114

What does the Fire Officer use the functions of management for?

The Fire Officer uses the 4 functions of management to get work done by and through others.

115

The four functions of management.

They Constituted a continuos cycle that; they are never truly “finished”.

116

Who develops the Rules & Regulations?

Various government or government-authorized organizations implement the laws. The can also be established by local jurisdiction that set the conditions for employment or internally by the fire department.

117

Do Rules and Regulations give room for latitude or discretion?

No.

118

When using Policies are you expected to may any judgements?

Policies often require all members to make judgements and to determine the best course of action within the stated policy.

119

What do Standard Operating Procedures establish?

SOP’s are written organizational directives that establish or prescribe specific operational or administrative methods to be followed routinely for the performance or designated operations.

120

What is the difference between SOP’s & SOG’s?

Some departments prefer the term suggested (or standard) operating guidelines (SOG’s) instead of SOP’s because conditions often require the fire officer to use personal judgement in determining the most appropriate action. SOG’s allow for the deviations, if the conditions warrant. The distinction between SOP & SOG is very subjective.

121

A document that gives an officer decision making discretion is called a _____.

Policy

122

Which is NOT a method to increase ethical behavior?

Ignore ethics during employee selection.

123

The distinction between SOP and SOG is:

Subjective

124

What are ethical choices are based on?

Ethical choices are based on a value system.

125

If the organizations has no clear value what does the officer use?

The officer must consider each situation. often subconsciously, and make a decision based on hie values.

126

What are the keys to improving ethical choices?

The key to improving ethical choices is to have clear organizational values.

127

List 6 ways to have clearer organizational values.

Having a code of ethics that is well know
Selecting employees she share the organization’s values
Ensuring top management exhibits ethical behavior
Having clear job goals
Having performance appraisals that reward ethical behavior
Implementing as ethics training program

128

What 3 questions can help you judge a decision?

What would my parents and friends say if they knew?
Would I mind if the paper ran it as a headline story?
How does it make me feel about myself?

129

Where are the job requirements for Fire Officer II listed?

The requirements begin with meeting all the requirements for Fire Officer I and defined by NFPA 1021. The IAFC identifies the Fire Officer II as the Managing Fire Officer. The goal of their Officer Development Handbook is to encourage officers to acquire the appropriate level of training, experience, self-development, and education to prepare for chief fire officer.

130

Which NFPA document covers the professional qualification standards for fire officers?

1021

131

Which of the following positions is most closely associated with Fire Officer II?

Captain

132

The Fire Officer duties can be divided into 3 parts, list them.

-Administrative
-Nonemergency
-Emergency

133

What are the administrative duties for a Fire Officer II?

Evaluating employees performance
Correcting unacceptable performance
Completing formal performance appraisals
Project development
Divisional budget
Purchasing
Soliciting & rewarding bids
Preparing news releases
Reports to supervisor

134

List the nonemergency duties of a Fire Officer II?

-Conducting inspections to identify hazards
-Address fire code violations
-Review accidents, injury & exposure reports
-Identify unsafe work environment or behaviors
-Taking approve actions to prevent reoccurrence of accidents, injury or exposures
-Developing pre-incident plans for large or complex properties
-Developing policies & procedures for his level of supervision
-Analyzing reports and data to identify trends or condition requiring corrective action
-Developing and implementing corrective actions

135

Which are the emergency duties of a Fire Officer II?

-Supervising a multiunit emergency operation
-Using the Incident Command System in emergency operations
-Developing operational plans to deploy resources
-Deploy resources to mitigate the incident
-Determine the preliminary cause of a fire
-Develop post-incident analysis of multi-company operations.

136

What is essential to when operating at emergencies scenes?

A rigid command and control process.

137

What are the most frequent activities undertaken by the fire service?

EMS calls are accounting for 66% of the fire company responses

138

What is the second most common reason for fire service responses?

Activated fire protection system alarms

139

What is the third most common response?

Investigating an odor, a hazardous condition, or other service call, a great time to deliver outstanding customer service.

140

Although the structure fires are on the decline, the rate at which fire fighters are being killed or seriously injured while working in them continues to climb. What are the main causes?

Flashover and structural collapse are the primary causes within a burning structure.

141

What deterioration can be suspected in a Century-old building?

Although these buildings are robust, they may have worn-out or rusted building components.

142

What era did the compositions of the fire service begin to change?

The initial integration of women and minorities was in the 1960’s.

143

The classic view of integration of women and minorities would include ____________.

Assimilation

144

Chief Johnson concludes his orientation about the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation pointing to the Everyone Goes Home poster, with two directives:

1. Everyone has their seat belts on before the rig starts to respond.
2. The rigs come to a complete stop at every stop sign and red light intersection.

145

The professional qualifications standards for fire officers are documented in?

NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications.

146

What dose a Fire Officer I emphasize on?

Emphasis is placed on accomplishing the department;s goals and objectives by working through subordinates to achieve the desired results.

147

What part of management is responsible for the conduct of other?

The officer is responsible for the conduct, by applying policies, procedures, and rules to subordinates and to different situations.

148

How did the U.S. fire service originate?

As communities of citizens who responded when a fire broke out.

149

In 24 B.C., the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar created what was probably the first fire department, called?

Familia Publica

150

Who developed the first hand-powered water pumper?

Richard Newsham in London in 1720 developed the first hand-powered water pumper.

151

When did the steam-powered pumpers begin to replace hand-powered pumpers?

In 1829 the steam-powered pumpers had been developed and began replacing hand-powered pumpers.

152

During what time period did fire warden or night watchman patrolled neighborhoods and sounded the alarm if a fire was discovered? Some towns built watch towers.

In the Colonial period.

153

Where were the first building codes developed?

In Ancient Egypt the codes were focused on preventing building collapse, the codes were also recognized effective means of preventing, limiting and containing fires.

154

How did early volunteer fire departments develop revenue to purchase equipment and pay operating expenses?

Early volunteer fire departments were funded by subscriptions or donations.

155

The first fire fighters needed just muscular strength and endurance to pass buckets or operate a hand pumper. What did they need as the equipment got more complex?

The importance of of formalized training and good judgement increased.

156

What does the chain of command create?

Creates structure for managing the fire department as well as for directing fire-ground operations.

157

What type of leadership do fire department use?

Paramilitary style leadership, structure on the four management principles.

158

The fire departments are structured on the basis of four management principles, list them:

Unity of command
Span of control
Division of labor
Discipline

159

What are the examples given of ways to look at the organization of a fire department?

Function
Geography
Staffing

160

List the four functions of managing:

Planning
Leading
Organizing
Controlling
(PLOC)

161

What are ethical choices based on?

The value system

162

What are the administrative duties of a Fire Officer II include?

Evaluating subordinates job performance
Correcting unacceptable performance
Completing formal performance appraisals on members

163

When is a rigid command and control process essential and when is employee empowerment, decentralization making used?

-A rigid command and control process is essential in emergency scenes.
-Away from emergencies employee empowerment, decentralized decision making and delegation is used.

164

What percent of fire companies workload activities is spent firefighting?

Only 5% of the response workload is spent firefighting, making of of the least frequently performed activities.

165

What are the primary causes for fire fighters deaths in a burning structure?

Flashover and structural collapse are the primary causes.

166

For what reason are fire departments providing a wider variety of services, often as a multiagency effort?

Community expectations have changed.

167

A midlevel chief who often has a functional area of responsibility, such as training. and answer directly to the fire chief.

Assistant or division chief

168

Usually the first level of fire chief; also called a district chief. These chiefs are often in charge of running calls and supervising multiple stations or districts within a city. Also usually the officer in charge of a single-alarm working fire.

Battalion Chief

169

The superior-subordinate authority relationship that starts at the top of the organization hierarchy and extends to the lowest levels.

Chain of command

170

An absolute amplification device that enabled the chief officer to give orders to fire fighters during an emergency; a precursor to the bullhorn and the portable radio

Chief’s trumpet

171

A code or standard developed through agreement between people representing different organizations and interests. NFPA codes and standards are consensus documents.

Consensus document

172

Restraining, regulating, governing, counteracting, or overpowering.

Controlling

173

The process of identifying problems and opportunities and resolving them.

Decision making

174

A moral, mental, and physical state in which all ranks respond to the will of the leader. Also, the guidelines that a department sets for the firefighters to work within.

Discipline

175

The production process in which each worker repeats one step over and over, achieving greater efficiencies in the use of time and knowledge; also, the formal assignment of authority and responsibility to a job holders.

Division of labor

176

Historically, an identifying symbol on a building to let fire fighters know that the building was insured by a company that would pay them for extinguishing the fire.

Fire Mark

177

A system that defines the role and responsibilities to be assumed by personnel and the operating procedures to be used in the management and direction of emergency operations; also referred to as an Incident Management System (IMS).

Incident Command System (ICS)

178

A complex process by which a person influences other to accomplish a mission, task, or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Leadership

179

Guiding or directing in a course of action.

Leading

180

The IAFC Officer Development handbook describes describes it as the tasks and expectations for Fire Officer II.

Managing Fire Officer

181

Developing a scheme, program, or method that is worked out beforehand to accomplish and objective.

Policies

182

Directives develops by various government or government-authorized organizations to implement a law that has been passed by a government body.

Rules & Regulations

183

The maximum number of personnel or activities that can be effectively control by one individual (usually three to seven).

Span of control

184

The management concept that a subordinate should have only one direct supervisor, and that decision can be traced back through subordinate to manager that who originated it.

Unity of command

185

What is Unity of command?

The concept that fire fighters answer to only one supervisor

186

___________ means “putting resources together into an orderly, functional structured whole”

Organizing

187

The Location and year of the deadliest fire in the United States history are __________.

Peshtigo, 1871

188

“Selecting employees who share the values of the organizations” describes ________.

Ethics

189

The duties of both Fire Officer I and Fire Officer II can be divided into administrative, emergency and:

Nonemergency activities

190

A department that uses full-time career personnel along with volunteer or paid-on-call personnel is referred to as a:

combination department

191

The formal rank structure of most fire departments was adopted from the:

Roman military

192

In response to the Peshitgo Fire and Great Chicago Fire, communities began to enact:

strict building and fire codes

193

For fire officers to effectively coordinate firefighting efforts, it is vital that they have good:

communication

194

The first step in a progressive sequence generally associated with an officer supervising a single fire company is the rank of:

Fire Officer I

195

The professional qualifications standards for fire officers are documented in NFPA:

1021

196

The most important resource on the fire scene are the:

Fire fighters

197

Building codes govern the type of construction materials and frequently, the built-in fire prevention and:

Safety measures

198

The fire chief is directly accountable to the:

Local government

199

The chain of command ensures that given tasks are:

Carried out in a uniform manner

200

The complex process of influencing others to accomplish a task is the act of:

leadership

201

Written organizational directives that establish specific operational methods to be followed routinely for the performance of designated operations are:

Standard operating procedures

202

Developing clear organizational values can be accomplished by:

- Having a code of ethics that is well known throughout the organization.
- Selecting employees who share the values of organization.
- Ensuring that top management exhibit ethical behavior.

203

The first organized volunteer fire company was established under the leadership of _______________ .

Benjamin Franklin

204

__________________ , a firefighter in New York, developed the first fire hydrant in 1817.

George Smith

205

Ethical choices are based on a(n) _____________ system.

Value