Ch 10... Just behave Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10... Just behave Deck (43):
1

Group behaviour

Displayed within and as a group

2

Co-presence

Performing a task with others present

3

Allport: Social facilitation

Process by which others facilitate a behaviour, often improves performance. People skilled at task, high in extraversion, high in self esteem receptive to SF improvements,

4

Mere presence

Social facilitation may not be competitive, others present facilitates bhvrs. People make stronger judgments.

5

Co-actors

Ppl performing the same task at the same time but not performing it collectively

6

Social inhibition

Others hinder bhvr. Decreased performance on complex tasks.

7

Zajonc Theory of social facilitation

Others present --> arousal --> Strengthen dominant response --> EASY= enhancement, DIFFICULT= impairment

8

Drive

Negative state of tension assoc with an unsatisfied need, motivates efforts to satisfy need

9

Evaluation apprehension

Concern about being evaluated by observers when performing a task. Attentive audience improves time on familiar task, detrimental to unfamiliar.

10

Self discrepancy on tasks

Motivates people to perform better (more ideal) if small discrepancy. If large, motivation falls. Attention to self hinders practiced movements, anticipation of performance impedes performance.

11

Attention impairment on tasks

Attention is taken from tasks and diverted to audience, impairs performance on difficult tasks

12

Classification of Group Tasks: Steiner

Divisible or Unitary:
D: people in group perform diff tasks
U: people in group do same task

Maximizing or Optimizing:
M: Do as much as possible
O: Do as well as possible

Inputs relating to outcome:
Additive: sum of group efforts
Compensatory: average of all member's efforts
Conjunctive: determined by weakest link
Disjunctive: determined by strongest member
Discretionary: group decision

13

Process loss

Deterioration of group performance due to lost time coordinating, distractors, dominant members

14

Social loafing

Tendency for people's performance to decrease in a group when not responsible for individual actions. Ringleman effect: larger group, individual effort decreases

15

Free rider

Tendency for people to take advantage of a shared resource without contributing. Difference from loafing: loafer puts in some effort, loses motivation, free rider exploits purposefully

16

Social loafing model as a function of evaluation apprehension

Others--> no evaluation--> no apprehension--> relaxation--> LOAFING: performance decreases on easy tasks, increases on difficult

compared to

Others--> individual evaluation--> apprehension increases--> arousal--> SOCIAL FACILITATION: performance increases on easy tasks, decreases on difficult

17

Output equity

People like everyone to contribute equally, but perceive that others are loafing, and thus lose motivation

18

When loafing decreases:

High valuation of group
Commitment to group
High work ethic
High conscientiousness
High narcissism
Collectivist culture
Women

19

Deindividuation

Diffusal of responsibility in a group setting leads one to abandon constraints and act irresponsibly

20

Contagion theory: LeBon

Process leading to ideas spreading rapidly through crowds, may lead to unpredictable behaviour

21

Individuation

Process of distinguishing between people

22

Attentional cues

Features of environment that draw attention away from self. Lowered public self awareness.

23

Violence in a crowd increases when

Group size increases
Night time (feel anonymous)
Reduced attentional cues/ self awareness
Reduced accountability cues

24

Theory of objective self awareness: Duval and Wicklund

Awareness of self as object of attention

25

Accountability cues

Factors that determine what bhvrs ppl can get away with

26

Emergent norm theory: Turner and Killian

Theory of crowd behaviour which argues that rather than being a product of randomness and process loss, crowd behaviour is the result of social norms

27

Social identity model of deindividuation effects: Klein

Argues that phenomena is result of increased group focus, rather than loss of individual focus. Change from personal to social identity, increase in norm awareness and group consciousness.

28

Social identity theory: Tajfel

A person's sense of who they are based on their group membership(s). Tajfel (1979) proposed that the groups (e.g. social class, family, football team etc.) which people belonged to were an important source of pride and self-esteem.

29

Risky shift

Groups make riskier decisions than individuals, depending on original leanings of members

30

Group polarization

Interaction strengthens initial leanings of members, attitudes polarize

31

Normative influence

Influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them

32

Informational influence

People assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior for a given situation

33

Pluralistic ignorance

Situation where a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but assume others accept it

34

Groupthink: Janis

Mode of thinking that groups engage in when cohesion is more important than accuracy and alternatives. Characterized by:
1. Cohesive group of similar ppl
2. Group isolated from outside opinions
3. No clear rules to guide decision

Symptoms:
1. Illusion of invulnerability
2. Belief in morality
3. Collective rationalization
4. Stereotyped view of outgroup
5. Pressure from dissenters to conform
6. Self-censorship
7. Illusion of unanimity
8. Self appointed guards protect group leader's opinions from opposition

35

Preventing groupthink

1. Impartial at onset
2. Assign critical evaluator
3. Encourage critical thinking
4. Divide into smaller groups
5. Invite outside opinions
6. Discuss issues and consequences before implementing decision

36

Brainstorming

Open group discussion to generate ideas

37

Brainstorming effective when:

1. Combine group and individual brainstorming
2. Interact via writing/ communication technology

38

Great person theory

Theory of leadership asserting that leaders have an ideal combo of effective personality traits

39

Contingency theory of leadership

Argues leadership success is dependent on how task related/ relationship oriented the leader is, and amount of influence they have over group

40

Contexts of leadership

Task oriented effective in: Effective in high and low control contexts
Relationship oriented: Effective in moderate control context

41

Effective leaders

Confident
Consistent
Goal oriented
Trustworthy
Honest
Positive

42

Bartholomew 5 attributes of global leader:

1. Understand relevant business and cultural domains
2. Understand perspectives, trends of other cultures
3. Ability to work cross-culturally
4. Ability to adapt
5. Ability to relate as equals

43

Gender differences in leadership

Female leaders viewed negatively if they display strong assertiveness/ agentic other typical male qualities.

However id women use communal leadership styles they are viewed as weak.

Most effective when display a combo of communal an agentic leadership.