Ch 5 ...You don't say Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 5 ...You don't say Deck (62):
1

Language

A set of phonemes that convey meaning because they are organized according to rules

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Utterances

Complete units of speech in spoken languages

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Semantic rules

Rules that determine the meaning of sounds and words

4

Grammar

Collection of morphological, syntactic, and semantic rules that govern the production of language

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Grammatical gender

Organization of nouns along masculine, feminine, and neutral dimensions

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Morpheme

Meaningful component of structured language

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Biological cost of language

Jaw and mouth shape: tooth crowding, wisdom teeth issues, higher risk of choking

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Biological advantages of language

Strategics
Share and accumulate knowledge
Collective problem solving

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Linguistic nativism

Chomsky's theory that brain is hard-wired for innate language rules/ organization. Theory supported by children's abilities to learn languages efficiently, especially during critical period in early childhood

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Pidgin

Simplified mix of languages lacking rigorous grammar rules

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Creole language

Mixture of words from multiple languages, but with struct grammatical system

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Pragmatics

Distinction between what is said, and what speaker means (literal compared to intended meaning)

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Speech act theory

Theory proposing that speakers use language to perform certain actions

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Locution

Non-ambiguous meaning of an utterance (I had a good day)

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Perlocution

Unintended effect of an utterance (ex. It's fine...)

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Illocution

Speech act performed by an utterance (ex. I am sorry)

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Indirect language

Use of language in which the intended meaning is not stated explicitly, yet is commonly understood (ex. reserved)

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Theory of conversational implicature

Grice's theory that people are able to understand each other and communicate effectively because they follow rules of conversation

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Cooperative principle

Principle that people follow a set of rules that enable communication to function effectively

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Grice's 4 Maxims of communication

4 rules:
1. Quantity: communicators make their contributions to conversation as informative as required, and not more so
2. Quality: Communicators generally attempt to make their contributions true, not false, not lacking evidence
3. Relation: Communicators aim to be relevant
4. Manner: Communicators aim to be clear, not ambiguous

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In what context are Grice's maxims broken during conversation

When conveying implicit meaning (ex. sarcasm)

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Politeness

Process by which communicators frame their conversations in order to save the face of the their interlocutors

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Face

People's concern about their value/standing in the eyes of others

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Positive face

A person's wish to be well thought of, understood, liked and treated nicely.

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Negative face

A person's wish to go about their business unimpeded, to not be bothered

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Universal norm

The culturally universal tendency to use more formal, polite language with people of higher status, or higher social distance

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Whorf

Proposed theory that language entirely determines thoughts and perception

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Cultural frame switching

Different knowledge structures are learned and influence thoughts based on cultural setting. Bilingual studies support this by displaying personality differences when given in different languages.

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Masculine generic language

Use of masculine words to denote all people (ex. mankind)
Example of lens-like power of language: state, "Firemen responded". meaning firefighters attended to the blaze. However attention, memory, and cognition denotes "male", irrespective of linguistic intentions. Results of studies suggest that this contributes to gender biases. (p.221)

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Saying is believing effect

Tendency for a person's memory for events to be influenced by what they have said

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Social markers

Features of language that convey information about speaker's characteristics, ex personality, SES, power dynamic, cultural background

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Matched guise technique

Technique used to measure attitudes about a speaker based on language.
High speech rate= high rating of competence, sociability, trustworthiness
Frequent pauses= low rating of competence
Utterance length= Dominance rating
Elevated pitch= deceit and instability
Varied pitch=dynamism and extraversion

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Received pronunciation

Standard, high status spoke accent.
People who deviate from standard accent tend to be deemed less favourably

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Speech accommodation theory

Theory asserting that people modify their speech style to suit context

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Speech convergence

Speech style shift to that of the listener

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Speech divergence

Speech style shift away from that of the listener

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Communication accommodation theory

Theory asserting that people also modify non-verbal behaviours to suit context

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Serial transmission

Language consistent with stereotypes is transmitted, inconsistent language is not

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Common ground

Shared worldview

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Linguistic intergroup bias (LIB)

Tendency for people to describe ingroup positive and outgroup negative behaviours abstractly, but ingroup negative and outgroup positive concretely

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Linguistic expectancy bias

Interpersonal version of the LIB, people describe expected behaviours abstractly and unexpected concretely

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Nonverbal communication

*shrugs and raises eyebrow*

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Nonverbal communication includes:

Gestures
Tone
Expression
Distance
Dress
Body art
Lifestyle

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Social intellect

Set of skills involving reciprocative ability to infer other's emotions, motive, and intentions and personality. Many theorists argue nonverbal communication is core component

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Nonverbal communication enables communication by:

Express intimacy
Establish dominance
Facilitate goals
Regulate conversation
Provide information about inner states

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Paralanguage

Vocal pitch and speech rate

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Co-verbal behaviours

Nonverbal behaviours that accompany speech and and convey information to a receiver

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Interpersonal distance

Closeness between 2 people
Intimate: 0-0.5m
Personal: 0.5-1m
Social: 1-4m
Public: 4m+

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Heslin & Patterson: 5 types of touch:

Professional/ functional
Social/ polite
Friendship/ warmth
Love/ intimacy
Sexual

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Facial expressions

Voluntary or no changes in the face that convey information

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Gestures

Movements that accompany verbal communications

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Emblems/ quoatable gestures

Gestures that replace verbal communication

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Nonverbal sensitivity

Ability to discern other people's thoughts, feelings, an d intentions from their nonverbal behaviour

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Motivational impairment effect

When people try and hide deceit, it is easier to notice deceit occurring

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Conversation

Interactions with verbal and nonverball communication

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Back channel communication

Cues that let speaker know person is listening

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Conversation analysis

Study of talk in interactions, describes structure and pattern

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Discourse analysis

Analysis of entire communicative event located in socio-historic context

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Computer mediated conversation

Communication via computer network. Deindividution is often seen, where people are dis-inhibited as they feel anonymous and can thus break social taboos. Explains high levels of disclosure, hostility and hate group recruitment in CMC.

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Positive of CMC

Social identity model of deindividuation: facilitates expression of identity, especially out of norm behavioural components, and positive ingroup experiences

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Soft determinism

Language helps to make distinctions between concepts

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How is language performative

Achieves actions:
Three characteristics that enable it to do this
(1) non-ambiguous (literal meaning) – locution
- e.g., in “I’m here” the locution is that the person is actually here
(2) the act performed by the utterance – illocution
- e.g., the apology
(3) the unintended effects the utterance might have – perlocution
- e.g., making the addressee angry