Ch 11... Us and them Flashcards Preview

231 Exam 2 > Ch 11... Us and them > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 11... Us and them Deck (39):
1

Stereotype

Simplified but widely shared belief about group members

2

Prejudice

Negative affective prejudgment about group members

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Discrimination

Negative treatment of group members

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Cognitive theory of stereotypes

Necessarily simplistic understanding of group members used to preserve limited cognitive resources

5

Illusory correlation bias

Exaggerated perception of correlation between 2 variables. Intergroup relations is the perception that bhvr is more frequently displayed by a minority. Mech for stereotype and prejudice

6

Mechanism of ICB

Imperfection in memory and learning, disproportionate ratios encoded. Worse when Ps have lower working memory capacity or high cognitive load imposed.

Tendency for distinct bhvrs to capture attention and receive most elaborate processing

7

Category accentuation

Categorization distorts perception of members

8

Dogmatism

Tendency for people to be able to tolerate mutually inconsistent beliefs by isolating them from each other in memory, resistant to change

9

Epistemic need

Ppl seek haste, simplicity and clarity in info processing. Stereotypes meet these needs by providing simple explanations. People with high epistemic needs most prone to prejudice.

10

Personal need for structure

Person's preference for clarity and structure in situations, and level of annoyance experienced by ambiguity. High PNS leads prone to stereotyping

11

Need for cognitive closure

Desire to see any answer on a topic, expressed in 5 facets:
1. Desire for predictability
2. Preference for order
3. Discomfort with ambiguity
4. Decisiveness
5. Closed-mindedness

12

State of false consciousness

Marx & Engels: Protestant work ethic and religious providence keep people in a state of unawareness about disadvantaged position in class system

13

Marx key social concepts

1. Groups have unequal status
2. Individuals in groups share common interests
3. Groups have conflicting interests
4. Members of groups not aware of interests and fail to act on them
5. Awareness hampered by ideologies that obscure status inequalities, justify them, or make them seem unchangable

14

Authoriantrianism

Form of social organization characterized by submission to authority

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Conventionalism

Desire for adherence to traditional values

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Authoritarian aggression

Desire to punish those who defy social conventions

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Authoritarian submission

Tendency to yield to authority

18

Social dominance orientation

Variable that measures people's preference for hierarchy. Measures dimensions of:
1. Preference for hierarchical relations
2. Desire for own group to dominate others

19

When do people become more authoritarian

When social order threatened

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Ethnocentrism

View that own group is superior

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Realistic group conflict theory

Theory of intergroup conflict that explains intergroup bhvr with respect to secure resources

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Minimal group paradigm

Method for investigating the minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur between groups, categorization encourages discrimination.
Random assignment, no history, common goal, interpersonal ties necessary, people will still assign more valu to ingroup.

23

Sherif: Robber's Cave

Divide into groups --> attachment
Competition btw groups --> ethnocentrism
Superordinate goals --> reduced ethnocentrism and hostility

Run 3 times, only once through all 3 phases

24

Contact hypothesis

Bringing groups together reduces ethnocentris and conflicct

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Sexism

Belief about gender differences

Hostile: women pose a threat to men's position --> abuse, violence
Benevolent: women necessary for men's happiness, more virtuous -> protect, cherish
Ambivalent: Both positive and negative attributes included

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Social creativity

Preserving a positive self image by identifying and giving weight to dimensions on which they are superior to high status group

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Objectification

View of someone as represented by their body

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Ethnic cleansing and genocide

Attempts to forcibly move entire people from area, or eliminate them entirely

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Moral credentialling

Demonstrating one's credentials often means ppl will express more prejudice

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Modern racism

Modern, subtle variant of racism, expressed in ways that appear socially acceptable

31

Aversive racism

Inner conflict between an egalitarian view and racist impulses is aversive, so ppl avoid contact

32

Ageism

Prejudiced attitudes about age group

33

How stereotypes persist

Affecting social information processing, confirms pre-existing biases

34

Spontaneous trait inference

Infer other's traits from bhvr

35

Intergroup emotions theory

Intergroup emotions depend on relative power and status of group

36

Intergroup anxiety

Model arguing ppl expect negative outcomes when interacting with outgroups

37

Anxiety expectations of outgroup interactions:

1. negative psychological, ex. embarrassment
2. Negative behavioural, ex. exploittion
3. Negative evaluations by ingroup
4. Negative evaluations by outgroup

38

Stereotype threat

Fear of being judged in terms of a stereotype and negatively fulfilling this stereotype leads to poor task performance

39

Stereotype lift

Fulfilling a positive stereotype leads to enhanced performance