Ch 8... In or out Flashcards Preview

231 Exam 2 > Ch 8... In or out > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 8... In or out Deck (43):
1

Entitativity

Feature of a group that makes it appear as a distinct unit that is bound together.
High entitativity tends to produce homogeneous group with clear structure and purpose

2

Intimacy group

Groups closely tied together

3

Task group

Come together to achieve common goal

4

Common bond group

Members have close personal bonds within group

5

Common identity group

Members have close personal ties to group itself

6

Collectives/ aggregates

Share some connection, but no psychological value to this connection

7

Definitions of group

Two or more people who:
Are together in a way with psychological value
Share common fate
Defined and accepted social structure
Interaction

Define themselves as a group, and that group is recognized by another

8

Ingroup

Group we are in

9

Outgroup

Group we are not a part of

10

Tuckerman stage model of group formation

Forming: Little gets done, focus on acceptance and routine

Storming: Address conflict and roles

Norming: Roles and responsibilities established, supportive

Performing: Interdependence and flexibility. Group directed towards task

Adjourning: Completes task and disengages

11

Moreland and Levine Group socialization

Process of groups as a whole and group members coming together to meet each other's needs

12

Model of Group socialization

Investigation --> socialization --> maintenance --> resocialization --> remembrance OR back to investigation

13

Communication theory stages of socialization

Antecedent --> anticipatory --> encounter --> assimilation --> exit

14

Socialization outcome

Relate to how group members feel about how they functioned to reach group's purpose. Most prominent outcome is group cohesion

15

Group cohesion

Degree to which group holds together, sense of unity and commonality

16

Norms

Uniformities of behaviour and attitude that determine, organize and differentiate groups

17

Ethnomethodology

Method used for understanding social norms by analyzing accounts of day to day activities

18

Breaching experiment

Used in ethnomethodology to examine reactions to violation of norms

19

Litter study

Confederate littering clean setting, others littered less.

In dirty setting, people litter more after seeing confederate

20

Frame of reference

Range of possible positions people could adopt. Used to reference own thoughts and actions.

21

Reasons norms endure

1. Enforced, creates motivation
2. Internalized as right
3. Fixed during socialization
4. Consensus (modeling)
5. Activated by interactions
6. Heuristics for behaviour

22

Social role

Expectations shared by group members of how particular ppl are supposed to behave

23

Status

Shared evaluations of the prestige of roles

24

Diffuse status characteristics

Attributes not directly relevant to group task but positively valued in society

25

Specific status characteristics

Attributes directly relevant to group task

26

Jost & Banjai System justification theory

Theory that peoples dependence on social systems for wealth and security motivates them to social social systems and see them as fair

27

Social creativity

Strategies that group members engage in to maintain the esteem of the group

28

Marginal members

Deviate from prototypical group member. Black sheep effect

29

Black sheep effect

Derogation of deviant or marginal ingroup members

30

Intergroup sensitivity effect

Tendency to prefer criticism to come from within a group than from an outsider

31

Impostors

People who threaten the group by fraudulently claiming to be members

32

Cross-cutting categories

Subgroups that represent categories that have members outside immediate larger groups

33

Group interdependence

Allow people to achieve more things, and in more innovative ways

34

Opinion based groups

Groups formed around shared opinions

35

Greenberg Terror management theory

Theory proposing that human awareness of death creates a constant source of existential crisis

36

Social identity

The aspect of our identity that is determined by our group membership

37

Social identity theory

The theory of group membership and intergroup relations arguing that

38

Subjective uncertainty

Uncertainty about who we are and what we are supposed to do. This is alleviated by group memberships.

39

Prototype

Fuzzy sets of characteristics that define a group

40

Self categorization

Cognitive process of categorizing oneself as a group member

41

Optimal distinctiveness

People like to feel unique as individuals but at same time they feel need to affiliate with others

42

Strategies to balance individuality/ belonging

1. Identify with numerically distinct group
2. Identify with subgroup
3. Identify with non mainstream group
4. Enhance the distinctiveness of group
5. Differentiate oneself with roles
6. Identify with group that prescribes individualism
7. See oneself as loyal, not conformist
8. See oneself as more normative than other group members

43

Social ostracism

Being excluded from a group by the consensus of the group