Ch. 10 Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10 Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance Deck (40):
1

Food Guide Pyramid

a tool designed to provide guidance for evaluating nutrient adequacy of the diet

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Dietary Reference Intakes

recommendations for 50 nutrients (14 vitamins, 18 minerals, and 18 macronutrients and related food components)

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proteins

like carbs and fats, are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but they also contain nitrogen

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amino acids

the molecules that, when joined in groups of a few dozen to hundreds, form the thousands of preteens occurring in nature

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polypeptide

several amino acids together

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protein quality

whether or not the protein supplies amino acids in amount proportionate to the body's needs

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vegans

those who consume only plant proteins

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complementary proteins

a variety of plant foods that provide different amino acids

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cell turnover

the constant breakdown and regeneration of cells

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negative calorie balance

when fewer calories are consumed than are expended

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carbohydrate

primary role is to serve as an energy source

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monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, and galactose, are single-sugar molecules

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disaccharides

sucrose, lactose, and maltose, are composed of two simple sugar units joined together

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polysaccharides

also known as complex carbohydrates, contain up to thousands of glucose units

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glycogen

glucose it is synthesized to form glycogen when glucose enters the muscles and liver and if it is not metabolized for energy

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glycogenesis

the process of converting glucose to glycogen

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glycemic index (GI)

classifies a food by how high and for how long it raises blood glucose

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fiber

found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, and whole-grain products such as whole-grain bread, oatmeal, and popcorn

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ketosis

high levels of ketones in the bloodstream

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lipids

includes triglycerides (fats and oils)

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saturated fatty acids

fatty acids containing no double bonds

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monounsaturated fatty acids

fatty acids containing one double bond

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polyunsaturated fatty acids

fatty acids containing two or more double bonds

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cholesterol

has many essential functions, necessary for the production of bile salts, vitamin D, and several hormones

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vitamins

organic substances that cannot be synthesized by the the body

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electrolytes

play a fundamental role in the regulation of water distribution in various fluid compartments in the body, sodium chloride

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osteoporosis

deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture

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voluntary dehydration

the fact that most athletes replace only about two-thirds of the water they sweat off during exercise

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precompetition meal

for many this is a ritual

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carbohydrate loading

a technique used to enhance muscle glycogen prior to long-term aerobic endurance exercise

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energy

commonly measured in kilocalories

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kilocalorie

the work or energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius

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diet induced thermogenesis

the thermic effect of food, the increase in energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate that can be measured for several hours following a meal

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Nutrient density

the nutrients present per calorie of food

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energy density

refers to the calories per weight or volume of food

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anorexia nervosa

self-imposed starvation in an effort to lose weight and achieve thinness

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bulimia nervosa

characterized by recurrent consumption of food in amounts significantly greater than would customarily be consumed at one sitting

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obesity

a complex, multifactorial condition, with genetic, physiological, metabolic, social, cultural, environmental, and psychological components

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Body Mass Index (BMI)

the preferred body composition assessment for obese individuals

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binge eating disorder

a syndrome related to obesity