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Flashcards in Ch. 11 Firefighter Survival Deck (63):

Your department can take the following 3 steps to immediately reduce rates of FF injury and mortality even further:

Improve hazard awareness and recognition.
Provide emergency escape or self-rescue capability.
Provide rescue capability by deploying RIT's (steps-RIT)


Norman's 3 Rules of Survival

Never put yourself in a position DEPENDING ON SOMEONE ELSE TO COME AND GET YOU
Always know where your escape route is
Always know where your SECOND escape route is


3 FF Survival Course Topics

Hazard awareness.
Escape training.
FF accountability (topic-accountability).


(Hazard Awareness)6 Questions FF must find answers for as soon as possible:

What is the occupancy?
Where are the occupants?
Where is the fire?
How do we get in?
How do we get out when things go wrong?
What is happening to the building?


If you are CUT OFF by fire, limited options (3)

Area of refuge (close as many doors as possible)
Call for help (radio, pass alarm and voice)
Begin seeking another escape route or area of refuge


Replacing cylinder is useful in certain situations (4)

Fires in:
-holds of ships
-windowless buildings


Executing emergency bailout (ladder):

Ladder just at or under the sill.
One arm between 1st and 2nd rungs, hand grabs 2nd rung, palm up.
Other hand, grab 3rd rung, palm down then ROLL OUT.


_______ and ______ have definite impacts on firefighter SAFETY as well as COMFORT. (Personal escape system)

Type of rope
Packing method


MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR factor when using FF hand tools as anchor point:

Load applied at a 90 degree angle to window opening in the wall


Tool as anchor point. The key is to place the rope attachment to the tool at the point where:

Tool crosses the CORNER of the window


Parts of emergency body wrap

Rope out window, grab 3 ft of slack.
Wrap underneath armpits, around back, over SCBA preferably.
Bring 2 sides together and grasp with one hand in front.
Roll out window (2 sections of rope grasped).
Bring free hand up grasp end of rope under that armpit.
Separate hands horizontally-no wider than shoulder width-use body to create friction


FF deaths _____per year in 1970's, ____ per year in 1990's to ____ in 2010.

140, 100, 72 (14 in structure fires)


Positioning of tool for anchor point, rope slide (steps)

Rope around tool.
Diagonally across corner of window opening (90 degree)
Choice of tool IS NOT critical.
Key - rope attachment to tool at point where TOOL CROSSES CORNER OF WINDOW.
Apply tension, don't let tension off.


5 critical points for rope slide

Don't allow hands to spread farther then shoulder-width.
Take all slack out of rope just prior to exiting window to avoid sudden impact load (break ribs, pull anchor free, destroy rope).
Training is vital to success.
Great deal of friction (coat and gloves a must).
Use NFPA rescue-rated rope (suitable- 1 person load/personal use)
1983 NFPA rope


3 copies of riding list (name and assigned duty)

Kept by officer on duty
On dashboard of apparatus
Copy at command post {large-scale operations}


Roll call - wireless system
3 status conditions:

-need assistance


Roll call ordered/recorded (5):

-pass activation
-sudden fire extension
-structural collapse
-orders to withdraw


8 situations for mayday

Injury prevents IMMEDIATE escape
SCBA low air - exit beyond range
Entrapped/hung up 30 or less
Disoriented/lost more than 30 sec
Missing/unaccounted for more than 60 sec
Unconscious/life-threatening injury
Collapse is imminent


Four prereq's for SUCCESSFUL RIT: (PPTT)



5 RIT tools for every member

SCBA with pass.
2 light, large and secondary.
Cutters or knife.
Spare cylinder (on apparatus).
40 ft of 3/8 in. rope (NFPA rated)


2 general types of search

Large open space (gymnasium).
Complex area (Home Depot)


If no TIC available, MANUALLY SWEEP each area. Can be done with:

Fan search (thorough, not fast) **8 ft arc**
T pattern (fast, not thorough)


Steps for rope slide (4)

Find window
Clear window (glass and frame)
Check for venting below
-yes-drop rope last second
-no-deploy rope and find anchor
Suitable anchor point


Before attempting and emergency escape, all members should ________________.

First transmit a mayday


When breaching a wall for escape or clearing lath and plaster to get through a wall, it will leave you a space about ____________.

14 in. space between the studs


If inside a room and trying to breach an inward opening door, kicking with both feet can be of value if ______________.

There is a panel on the lower section that can be kicked out


Many types and styles of escape rope (3)


NFPA 1983


_______ is the most crucial part of the personal escape system

The rope


Firefighter accountability has several facets (3)

Knowing WHO is on scene.
Knowing WHERE they are operating.
Ascertaining their physical CONDITION.


To conduct a head count requires some additional equipment, the most important is _____________. At an absolute minimum, at least one radio should accompany each _________, so one radio may serve ________.

A portable radio.

Hose team.
Two people


Roll call on the fireground is a sign of one of two things happening:

Situation is SPIRALING out of control with rapidly changing conditions.
Situation is WELL IN HAND and being managed very effectively.


Get a fully staffed fire company or ___________________ as your RIT and make sure they know their job

2 two-person or three-person companies


Generally, team search is a _____________.

RIT technique for locating FF in trouble and use under extreme conditions


When a mayday has occurred, the ICs first PRIORITY is to ___________.

Gain control of the situation.
Clear radio channels of any unnecessary traffic.
Establish clear lines of communication.


This persons job is to monitor how MANY people enter, WHO they are, WHERE they are, their AIR supply, and their time of ENTRY/EXIT.

Control person


Control person equipped with ______ and _______.

Water-resistant markers


By assigning a maximum of ______ of submergence time for nominal ______ SCBA, the __________ can indicate at the _______ point that members have reached the halfway point and must return to ___________.

20 minutes.
30 minutes.
Control person.
10 minutes.
Fresh air.


For team search, the minimum is ____ (preferably ____) and one person acts as the ________ remaining outside the area at the point where the search rope is secured to a substantial object. Add'l person assigned as ________________, on main fireground channel.

6, 7.
Control person.
Liaison to search team.


The team leader should be initially at the anchors location and these two members __________.

Form a team for accountability


______ should monitor how far the team has entered and determine if it is safe to CONTINUE.

Team leader


Team search.
Knots specifics

Knots every 25 ft for distance (2nd and beyond, 3 in. apart).
After distance knots, another about 6-8 in. away for DIRECTION


Using radio or pager to find member

Feedback-assisted rescue (FAR)-radios one to two inches apart.
Pager-assisted rescue.

Feedback effect UP TO 1/2 mile


As soon as the first report is received that a FF is down, three things should happen:

ALS ambulance.
Add'l firefighting personnel.
Protective hoseline, spare mask or RIT pack, and BVM with oxygen


FAR or pager-assisted rescue drawbacks

Manual operations requiring first that someone recognize firefighter is missing.
Time-consuming operation


8 situations for Mayday

Injury prevents immediate escape.
SCBA low air-exit beyond range.
Entrapped 30 sec or less.
Disoriented more than 30 sec.
Missing/unaccounted for more than 60 sec.
Uncon/life threat.
Collapse is imminent


One critical task RIT members can perform without reducing readiness is:

Assist the IC with TRACKING LOCATION of operating units and personnel


RIT TEAM tools (10)

Radios for each TWO member team.
200 ft search/guide rope.
Forcible entry tools for each TWO member team.
At least one HFT.
Lifesaving rope and harness belt.
RIT pack or spare mask for each trapped FF.
Stokes and BMV with oxygen.
Power saw, wood or metal blade, depending on size up.
Ladders (tower, aerial, portable).
Hoseline (to cover perimeter of bldg)


RIT doesn't mean they should never budge. They may: (2)

In smaller bldgs, employed to, open up add'l escape routes.
May have to be deployed to get a vitally needed hoseline in place to protect firefighters


RIT officer size up (5)

Request size up by radio while enroute.
Monitor tactical AND command channels.
Once on scene, perform RIT size up.
Attempt to obtain a copy of bldg floor plan AND copy of command chart.
Monitor progress


(Trapped members) IC should ascertain exact location of members (consc/unconsc) (4)

Conscious-direct voice, radio, PASS, tapping.
Unconsc-PASS, FAR, pager-assisted rescue, TIC


Team search-All members must remain in contact either:

With main search rope.
Short length of personal rope attached to it


Use in locating civilians is very limited due to smoke and heat and don't have enough survival time AND might be needed to search for seat of the fire in a large, complicated, sprinklered bldg

Team search


RIT's should be equipped with longer-duration breathing apparatus; 30 minute cylinders are _________________.

Just too small for RIT operations


Ch. 11.
At most incidents where a FIREFIGHTER is trapped, the best resource you can have is ______________.

Additional Firefighters


Following actions on the part of rescuers could save a life: (7)

Call for assistance immediately.
Do not share your mask.
Be totally familiar with all types of SCBA's for your department.
Have a sharp knife ready.
Once victim is out of immediate danger, begin basic life support.
KISS-avoid fancy systems when a simpler method will suffice.
If fire conditions/logistics permit, use of positive-pressure blowers or fans to inject fresh air


5 ways rope can be attached to downed firefighter

SCBA shoulder straps.
Girth hitch around chest (potentially injurious but fast).
Bowline on a night with slippery hitch (complex/less injurious).
Connect to escape harness.
Handcuff knot (fastest, simplest, least injurious).


Leg or legs over shoulder (close to floor OR up stairway)

Floor-one leg.
Stairway-two legs


Most effective means of removing a firefighter through any window opening ABOVE grade

Rope and ladder as a high point


When raising using a ladder as a high point, rope is passed over ____________ above the window sill. This needs ______ rescuers to pull the rope.

A rung at least 4 FEET

Three to four


Once the victim has a mask on that is supplying air, that mask should be ___________.

Converted to a harness


Two factors that have repeatedly shown themselves to be problematic when firefighters are in trouble are :

Lack of planning to meet emergencies.
Allowing panic mode to set in because it is a firefighter who is trapped


Officer must make the decisions about what steps will be taken and in what order. A single person designated as:

Victim Removal Officer.
*not victim tracking coordinator-victims from debris*


Team uses them to guide them as a pendulum or fan-shaped fashion.
Distance of rope to be let out depends on number of searchers.
Two searchers most practical-8 ft arc.
If team moves towards last known area, becomes a _____ search.

Fan search
-targeted fan search. Variation of this is T-pattern.
-T-pattern for unobstructed areas like gymnasiums.