Flashcards in Ch. 22 Terrorism and Homeland Security Deck (112):
-Placed around perimeter
-aimed at COMMAND POST personnel
-chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive (CBRNE weapons) by terrorists
-may not leave any visible evidence of their presence
-yet kill anyone who comes in contact
6 types of incidents for suspicion and extra awareness
Recognizable LANDMARK or bldg
Response to CROWDED public location
REPORTS of persons OVERCOME by fumes or chemical odor
TWO or more people unconscious
Any bldg where EXPLOSION has occurred
Response where threat or other intelligence indicates a MOTIVE
Biological weapons: death rate after exposure to SOME of these agents is:
-staph enterotoxin B (SEB)
Dirty bomb: while it leaves no visible of contamination, ______ with debris, particularly through ________, is deadly.
Threat of explosion of multimegaton nuclear bomb as ________. Formulation of such devices is _______ to accomplish.
______________ are still terrorists main weapon of choice. Terrorists tend to deal with methods they are _________________.
Reasonably certain will succeed
Terrorists don't like to risk ______ or ______
Fire department is only government agency that:
Routinely conducts inspections of existing structures
Effect of terrorist blast has potential to cause __________ than same size explosion caused by natural gas or other accidental causes.
Far greater harm to rescuers
At any explosion, immediate priorities are _____ and _____ that threatens further loss of life.
Control of imminent hazards such as fire or secondary collapse
-beakers/other glass ware
Factors that put our cities in the terrorist bullseye
-large concentration of people
-immediate, worldwide media coverage likely
-large diverse community for the terrorist to blend into anonymity
In conjunction with these rescue-related activities, a _____________________ is vital, since a bombing creates additional problems for responders who are not present at accidental explosions.
Rapid preliminary examination for the likely cause of the event
Bombing creates additional problems for responders
Threat of secondary device
Potential for WMD involvement
Crime scene considerations
One of most important tasks undertaken at bombing is to _______ as well as ______________.
Avoid concentrations of responders that might be target of secondary/suicide attacker
Most bombings are _______ bombs. Consist of a relatively _______ amount of _______ wrapped in ____________.
Large amounts of shrapnel
Antipersonnel bombings: _____ and ______ cause most of injuries.
_____ are vulnerable and ______ can be augmented to cause fire with ___________
Vehicle fuel tanks
This type of bombing is a serious threat for loss of life.
Bus and other mass transit facilities
If bomber can penetrate into a crowded, enclosed area, casualties can be _______ but even in ______ there are often survivors.
Extrication need for bus bombings and trains
(MCIs for trauma/burns)
-Bus bombings - not normally required OR is not difficult
-Train - advanced extrication will likely be required if blast results in derailment (lead car, speeding train, tunnel-greater effect)
Request _____ to establish safe corridor for the entry of rescuers.
Bomb squad or EMERGENCY ordnance disposal (not "explosive")
(Law enforcement = "safe corridor")
Fire IC MUST request site security from law enforcement
While responding, watch for ________ for causes and the nature of the event.
Clues in the debris
Primary consideration when positioning apparatus (especially if it has been confirmed event is in fact a bombing)
Position apparatus so that they can be driven forward out of any DANGER AREA that develops
-blocked in by civilian cars, seek shelter
First unit to _____________ must notify the department wide command structure
Identify an explosion as a likely bomb attack
Bombing-Position apparatus according to:
Collapse rescue plan
_____ should be positioned for RESCUE as needed. If not needed, position them ________.
__________ should be specially called as needed to COVER collapse areas but must be located _____.
Aerial ladders, out of the way
Elevating platforms, out of secondary collapse zone
_______ agents that have onset of symptoms delayed as much as _________
If you do not have enough people to cover the meter assignments, ___________ will have to wait.
If you discover a bomb/explosive device:
-don't disturb anything.
-don't use radio, handle talkie or cell phone.
-evacuate the area for at least 300 ft in all directions.
-notify law enforcement
**DON'T GO BACK IN TO SHOW WHERE IT IS**
________ is essential to ensuring open access to the scene.
Early establishment of secure remote staging area.
-request LE send resources to secure staging area
______ and _______ of the CP is vital to organizing the proper coordination of ___________.
Early establishment, clear identification.
Use ______ to limit rescuers' exposure
"Moan, cough or call out"
With triage, priority is to quickly _______, _______, and ______ those that can survive.
Locate, remove and treat
______ monitors status of triage efforts, providing estimates on number and condition of patients to be treated, and coordinating movement to medical care at appropriate treatment area.
Triage UNIT leader
______ coordinates activities within treatment area and request sufficient personnel and supplies to handle casualties in the four treatment categories.
- Must ALSO coordinate with Patient Group Supervisor to ensure that patients do not leave treatment areas UNTIL there is sufficient transportation available to move them.
Treatment UNIT leader
Be designated to ensure that sufficient transportation resources are available and to avoid overloading the nearest hospitals with patients. Also ensure proper tracking and recording of patients is performed.
Transportation GROUP Supervisor (only "Group" out of TTT)
Four treatment categories:
Red - immediate treatment.
Yellow - delaYed treatment.
GreeN - miNor treatment.
Black - deceased
If structure is affected, all handlines should be _____.
Attack vehicle fires with _____ handlines _______.
-2 1/2 in.
-1 3/4 in., from a distance (foam if possible)
This must be done before attacking any STRICTLY OUTSIDE fires.
Have LE personnel secure the area
If you must move a body, try to _______ as many details as possible about location, description, position, and so on.
If a bomb has caused no fire and little blast damage, suspect that it was used to disperse a _________ agent!
Most ______ attacks are covert in nature.
The ___________ is the minimum distance to evacuate.
Just the blast pressure can kill anyone inside the ________ without being struck by shrapnel.
Lethal AIR BLAST range
Evacuation should follow the _________ but that may be impractical. Some are ________.
A mile radius
Large building across the street will ___ and ______ the blast effect.
Until area designated as safe from secondary devices, avoid ___, _____ or ____ suspicious items
______ leaving the incident site should be treated as ______ _______. They should all be searched for ______ or ______ before being loaded into ambulance or being brought to casualty collection points.
Weapons or explosives.
_____________ also known as dirty bombs, use conventional explosives to disperse dangerous, but NOT FISSIONABLE, radioactive material.
Radiation Dispersal Devices (RDD's)
In event of a bomb blast containing radioactive material, the main threat is ____________ - trauma and burns - caused by explosive, NOT ___________.
Treatment of life-threatening injuries ___________ simply because the patient is contaminated with radioactive material. There is _________ to rescuers who do not inhale the radioactive materials. ______ then ______.
Should not be DELAYED.
Treat THEN wash decon them
One of the most important steps taken to REDUCE the spread of contamination
Extinguishing any fire that sends plumes of contaminated smoke skyward.
*if possible, fog spray from master stream or elevating platform*
Covert disposal can be accomplished by dispersing _____ or ______ radioactive materials by a variety of mechanisms. Examples:
Powdered or liquid.
-public spaces such as subways.
-leaving materials hidden in areas where public congregate
*REDs in HM*
Symptoms of radiation sickness may not appear for:
Hours or days
-only those directly exposed are in danger
Radioactive materials: main hazard is ____
Key to safe firefighting operations (radiological) is:
-avoid breathing contaminated material.
-monitor your exposure with dosimeter
Leave for decon when your dose approaches _____, maximum under emergency conditions.
25 roentgens (R)
Examples of shielding
Mask - lungs.
Gear - skin.
Building - body
Establish perimeter of cold zone at:
1 m/R (milliroentgen, or 1/1,000 roentgen
-point at which first responders radiation detectors begin to sound alarm
In the hot zone, make sure you search _______. Walking directly toward a source could be _________. Wear ______ and make sure it is displaying the _______, not just the _____.
In a circular pattern.
Dosimeter, total absorbed dose, not just the rate
Contamination hazards could lead to following radiation hazards:
-short-term effects, radiation burns, radiation poisoning.
-leukemia, other cancer, bone destruction, birth defects
Threat of ________ is perhaps most likely WMD attack Americans might face
-military agent such as sarin.
-intentional release of toxic industrial chemical, such as chlorine (CL) or hydrogen cyanide (AC).
As approaching area, only ______ should approach the immediate location.
First-due engine and ladder
________ is a nearly perfect means of spreading most chemical and biological agents.
Be particularly weary when going ________, since most chemical weapons are __________ air.
Heavier than air
Bunker gear and SCBA will protect rescuer for _______, if rescuer has entered area where there are _________.
-Still live victims
*fully protected rescuer - able to provide rescue for UP TO 30 min. if deconned PROMPTLY after exiting*
Dispersal device still dispersing agent when FD arrive, ___________. They shall immediately ________.
Make NO ATTEMPT to stop it.
Retreat and begin decon
First 3 Chiefs assigned to WMD/terrorism event are:
Best protection is:
Avoid contact with with any suspected agents
First priority of backup team is:
-Safety of initial survey team, INCLUDING initial team is deconned before they take off SCBA and bunker gear.
Deciding initiate rescue or defensive operation, IC must determine _______. IC should review guidelines by SBCCOM in its ___________.
Improvised Response Program (IRP)
Unconscious or no ambulatory victims are discovered OR if unidentifiable pools of liquid or vapor are encountered, define that area as:
_______ are part of our Homeland Security effort
We have a role that these agencies are unable to fill: __________________
We go right into people's homes and businesses all the time
Is the only government agency that routinely conducts inspections of existing structures
Fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate.
Cyanides (sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide).
Improvised ventilation equipment
Enclosed fume hoods.
Exhaust fans temporarily located near sinks, stoves, etc.
Firefighters have __________ of protecting themselves against SOME of these weapons. The key is to ________ and _________. ______ saves lives.
Recognize their presence and take the proper precautions
________ are generally fast acting and will likely produce a very visible display of their effects. The agent could be a dispersal of a _________ like the nerve agents or it could be a ____________ that is shipped through your city, such as chlorine or hydrogen cyanide.
Highly toxic industrial chemical
Transition from first arriving officer as IC to law enforcement/federal authorities when?
As soon as lifesaving efforts have concluded
Rescue and removal of all persons involved in the incident has been accomplished and all immediate life-threatening hazards are mitigated, the scene should be secured and __________________.
All fire personnel withdrawn pending direction from LE/Feds.
Bombings-Two objectives of fire department
Protect safety of public and emergency responders.
Preservation, gathering, and documentation of evidence
If you don't have enough people to cover the meter assignments, ______________.
The injured will have to wait until you cover these crucial metering assignments
If you discover a bomb or device, immediately evacuate the area _______________.
For at least 300 ft in all directions
If you find a device: (4)
Warn everyone around you of device.
Inform not to transmit on handle talkie/cell phones.
Report device to IC and the POLICE.
DO NOT go back in to show anyone where it is
One of the things that fire department planners and emergency managers have to consider is the possibility of a detonation of a __________________.
Crude nuclear device
More aggressive nudge-
-may be savable
-fails to cough, moan:don't have time
Destruction of ______, _____, and _____, which is usually NOT see in gas explosions.
Concrete floor slabs
Cartridges for APRs are intended to protect the wearer against inhaling and swallowing radioactive particles if they are ________.
First sign of attack will usually be ___________.
IC can initiate one of following two modes:
Rescue-living victims seen/heard.
Defensive-NO live victims seen or heard
Noxious/Kick Triage (rescuers wearing CPC)-
Patient responds to ____ then chances _______
Voice, gentle touch:
No painful stimulus:
-Probably still viable
-availability of treatment determines survival
-likely to die
Exhibiting no signs or symptoms of exposure but who are requesting treatment _________.
Likely to be _____________.
Because of fear.
Many times the number of persons ACTUALLY affected
Ladder companies assignment if large crowds, persons in panic, and obviously injured people:
Facilitate evacuation, attempt to enlarge exit access by forcing/removing gates
Chief must be trained and equipped to operate in CPC and will control and coordinate operations inside the hot zone upon her arrival.
Forward Operations Officer
Officers who observe victims displaying the signs and symptoms should transmit "__________" via handie talkie.
Bunker gear will protect the wearer for a maximum of ____ in a LETHAL concentration.
Once initial size-up is completed, the survey team should withdraw to a safe area and undergo ___________.
Emergency gross decon
Before initial survey team enters, a ______ and _____ must be in place.
Backup team and decon team
They shall act as the air and communications monitor for their members, writing down what time the members go on air and making sure that they return to begin the decon process before their low-air alarm operates.
With 45 minute bottle, you can allow ______ for operations and ___ for decon. With 30 minute bottle, you can allow ___ time frame for operations and __ for decon.
20 ops, 5 decon.
10 ops, 5 decon
Proceed as though every explosion were the result of ___________________.
Bombing until other causes are determined
First engine gross decon
Fog on a discharge (reduce drains on personnel).
Hand line with a fog (add'l coverage)
Factors that make rescue practical:
10 minutes or more since release.
Living victims/victims calling for help.
Survivors indicate other living victims.
CPC RIT immediately available.
Factors that make rescue NOT practical:
Self evac has ended.
No living victims seen/heard.
Factors for defensive operation:
Second or secondary attacks.
Uniformed personnel have become casualties
Characteristics of defensive operations
Decision already made by chemical.
We DO NOT begin operations in a defensive manner.
Limited resources/no units with training/equipment needed
Unidentified pools of liquid/vapor