Ch. 6 Sprinkler/Standpipe Ops Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Sprinkler/Standpipe Ops Deck (80):

3 factors that remove fresh air (fire in sprinkler bldgs):

Increased CO.
Sinking fire gases.
Smoke being pushed down.


In fighting fires in a sprinklered building, ______ is an absolute must but will often be ______.

Extremely difficult
*PPV=extremely valuable, HVAC May be only way*


Most common and simplest type of sprinkler is _______.

Automatic wet system


Automatic wet sprinkler has an alarm valve which: (2)

1) is primarily a check valve (prevents water flowing back out of system).
2) when valve opens, transmits alarm (small piping)


Which sprinkler system will reset itself? Automatic wet or automatic dry?

Automatic wet


When supplying sprinkler: (3)

Short lines.
Volume mode.
150 psi


If false alarms recur at same location (2)

Notify building owner that repeats won't be tolerated.
-contractors can adjust piping so water can flow for longer period. Delay can be UP TO 1 MINUTE.
Also try to find the cause of the problem.


After automatic wet system, this the next most common sprinkler system type:

Automatic dry (dry-pipe)


Dry-pipe sprinklers are more complex or less complex than automatic wet?

More complex, fire dept's have more difficulties with dry-pipe


Dry-pipe valve functions similarly to wet-alarm except for:

Clapper valve has much larger top than bottom surface.
Clapper equipped with lock-OPEN feature (water columning)


Dry-pipe sprinkler air and water pressures

Air (top) 30-40 psi.
Water (bottom) up to 100 psi.
"Differential dry-pipe valve"


Water columning prevalent in what sprinkler system:



FF's respond to dry-pipe sprinkler trip and silence the alarm, 2 problems they face:

1)Another alarm won't be received for actual fire.
2)if system freezes, no water flow and ice in pipes blows system apart


This type of sprinkler system is connected to water source controlled by an automatic valve.

*heads merely nozzles*


This type of sprinkler system is consists of automatic detection system coupled with an automatic dry-pipe system.

(action for detection)


Preaction system uses ______ sprinklers while deluge uses _____ sprinklers.

Closed. Open.


In Preaction system, _______ heads must activate to prevent _______.

2 or more.
False alarms


Sprinkler head pressure and flow rates

100 psi = 55-60 gpm.
50 psi = 40 gpm.
5 psi = 10 gpm.


3 exterior signs of sprinkler:

Presence of siamese.
Sight or sound of water alarm gong.
Running water discharging from pipes coming through wall of bldg


The best way to determine whether or not a sprinkler system is present is:

By prefire inspection and planning.
(Also familiarizes with control valves, type and operational status)


Upon our arrival at sprinklered bldg, what determines our course of action:

Whether or not sprinkler system is operating


3 reasons not to wait for owner with keys

Aren't positive there isn't cause for an alarm.
(Defective gongs, valves shut off, debris in the lines).
Failure to act may let fire intensify.
Some very valuable equipment may be exposed to damage


When departments decide to use _____, _____, or ______ hose and _____ nozzles, they violate the hydraulic design of the standpipe systems.

1 1/2", 1 3/4", 2". Fog


Some type of device will restrict the pressure to ____________ on 1 1/2 in. OUTLETS

A maximum of 80 psi (100 psi after 1993)


Class II (hose cabinet) standpipe max

100 gpm (flow)


Relief valves or other pressure-control devices required to ensure maximum pressure at TOP-FLOOR outlets is ____________ where 1 1/2" OCCUPANT HOSE is provided

No more than 65 psi (100 psi after 1993)


(Standpipes) Whenever there is a serious fire, a good practice is :

Supply 1st floor hose outlets for each riser, IN ADDITION TO Siamese


Class I standpipe

Primarily for use by:
Fire dept. personnel OR.
Others trained in handling heavy fire streams


Class II standpipe (just hose cabinet) {GPM!!}

For use by bldg occupants to control MINOR fire, with 1 1/2" hose, with open tip or fog nozzle - only 100 GPM!!!!


Class III standpipe

Allow fire dept to use heavy hose streams, as well as provide FIRST-AID HOSE for occupant use prior to arrival of dept.

Can be 2 1/2" outlet AND 1 1/2" outlet
2 1/2" outlet WITH 1 1/2" reducer


Class III standpipe on 1 1/2" outlet: more than 100 psi can be dangerous to untrained user

Some type of device to RESTRICT pressure on 1 1/2" hose OUTLET to 80 psi (100 psi after 1993)


Class III standpipe for 2 1/2" outlet

After 1993, permits up to 175 psi (minimum 100 psi)


Types of devices to restrict pressure (3)

Simple orifice plate-hole in 2 1/2" brass plate - best for open tip nozzles "suicide pipes", don't function to limit static pressure.
Vane-type PRV-2 sets of overlapping on movable plate (adjustable). Holes can be moved, even then restrictions. If anything within 3" of threads, (restrictor) then remove. PUMP OPERATOR AT FLOOR.
Pressure-reducing DEVICE-combination outlet control and pressure reducing, allow only set max pressure, regardless of flow (max flow 100 gpm). must be bypassed, pin (similar to extinguisher) or metal tab (bent)


PRV problems

Can't be bypassed OR
moving parts that fail.
75% failed to provide satisfactory stream during test


PRV periodic maintenance and flow test frequency

At least every 3 years, preferably every year


Fires in standpipe equipped bldgs became major events because: (3)

Sheer size.
Difficulty to vent.
Time factor to respond/setup "reflex time"


Bldg code specify requirements for standpipe:

More than 75 feet in height OR
More than 2 stories and 20,000 sq ft.


First item needed in the PLAN for standpipe equipped bldgs:

Determine which bldgs are equipped with standpipes and which are not (prefire planning)


2nd item needed in plan for standpipe bldgs:

Location of fire (1st is determine whether standpipe or not)


What floors to stretch and what floors to use standpipe?

1st and 2nd, stretch.
ABOVE 2nd, standpipe!!


Above 2nd floor, standpipe is PREFERRED because: (3)

Time saved.
Less friction loss.
Amount of hose to reach UPPER FLOORS.


Each point must be within _____ ft of _____-ft of hoseline (pre-1993 NFPA 14) {from standpipe}



Each point with _____ ft plus _____ to the outlet on the stair landing BELOW the fire floor. (Current NFPA 14) {hoseline reach from standpipe}

150, Height of staircase. UNSPRINKLERED bldgs (So 4 sections unsprinklered/5 sections sprinklered)


Survey of floor below doesn't work for office/commercial except:

Elevator lobbies.
Stairs (usually).


Critical element in determine likelihood of success of attack (standpipe ops)

Diameter of attack line


Key determinant of hose and nozzle requirements (standpipe ops)

Year system was designed


Minimum and maximum pressure at 2 1/2 in. outlet, NFPA 14 (after 1993)

100 min psi, 175 max psi


Search strap possibilities:

On door: search underway.
Hanging from hallway or public side: search completed


High-rise kit additional items before start of operations:

Forcible entry equipment (flat head, Halligan and K-tool).
Preferably hydraulic forcible entry tool.
Hand light.
Portable radio (two better).
2 1/2 gal. Water extinguisher and 6 ft pike pole


Attack team should use stairs/elevator when?

7th or below: stairs.
ABOVE the 7th: elevator


Unusual circumstances to bypass Siamese: (3)

Siamese frozen or damaged due to vandalism.
Check valves within structure are stuck.
Riser control valves are shut down
*secondary supply lines stretched to hose outlets on first OR second floor (won't work with press. regulating valves)*


Good starting discharge pressure for standpipe is:

100 psi + 5 psi for each story above grade.

If fog, 150 psi + 5 psi for every grade


100 psi plus 5 or 150 psi plus 5 (fog) is good for:
friction loss through ______ lengths of 2 1/2, standpipe, and ______ of 3 in. supply hose to siamese.

3, 100 ft


5 types of standpipes

Automatic wet*preferred*.
Automatic dry.
Semiautomatic dry.
Manual wet.
Manual dry


In freezing weather, this standpipe is a better alternative to the manual dry:
Superior to the manual dry:
Deluge-type valves connected to pull boxes:

Semiautomatic dry


Piping filled with air:
Systems aren't common:
Not desirable from FD point of view:

Automatic dry standpipe


Following sources of water supply are similar to those in automatic sprinkler systems: (3)

Direct connection to city mains (with/without pumps).
Gravity tanks.
Pressure tanks


Problems with manual dry standpipe: (3)

Unable to withstand pressure due to corrosion.
Valves opened (intentionally/unintentionally).


Locations for manual-dry standpipe (2)

Adjoining the front fire escape balcony rather than inside the structure.
Buildings under construction.


Size pipe wrench for standpipe kit:
Size for 2 1/2 in. coupling:

14 or 18 in. pipe wrench.
18 in. pipe wrench


Newly installed piping in sprinklers is hydrostatically tested to ________.

200 psi


For automatic dry sprinkler, ______ must be continuously available, either from ______ or __________ .

Compressor OR bottles and regulators


Goes back 100 years.
No water supply connection.
Perforated-pipe systems, rows of pipes with small holes (1/8 -1/4 in.) drilled every few inches along TOP and SIDES.
Function like modern deluge.
Should NOT be relied on for fire protection.

Nonautomatic systems


Logical way to extend sprinkler protection into existing unsprinklered high-rise buildings in early 1970's.
Tap into existing standpipe riser

Combination sprinkler and standpipe systems


Presence of automatic sprinkler systems.
Often, _________ will indicate the presence of a sprinkler system

Method of alarm receipt


If serious fire is found in a building that is protected by a sprinkler system, you should ________.

Immediately call for assistance.


If you find a serious fire in a sprinklered building, generally the system _________. That could be due to _________, meaning ________.

Will have been turned off.

An arsonist closing the valve.
Accelerants may well be present


If the building isn't occupied and no signs of an actual fire are detected, our actions will depend on __________.

Our size-up


Two ways to check for water flow:

Feeling pipe for vibration (Siamese).
Putting your ear to it to listen for the sound of flowing water


NFPA recommends that hose for occupant use be located _______________.

Outside of the stairwell ON the fire floor


Since majority of buildings that are equipped with standpipes are of Class 1 conduction (fireproof), the threat of interior fire spread and the danger to life is greatest __________.

In the immediate fire area


"Silent sentinel"

Automatic sprinkler system


Firefighters best ally

PROPERLY DESIGNED automatic sprinkler system


There has never been ____________ having a fully operational wet-sprinkler system.

Multiple death fire (more than three killed) in a building


Constant pressure systems (sprinklers)
Fed from either a ________ or a ___________, which is much like a ___________. Capacity of these tanks varies from ___________.

Gravity tank on the roof.
Pressure tank, giant pressurized water fire extinguisher.
2,000-5,000 gal or more


Sprinkler operations (%s)

Sprinklers controlled fire 96% of the time.
More than 90% of the time, only 1 or 2 heads went off (>95%).


Normally, our first indication of a fire.

Sprinkler water-flow alarm.


With this system, must use great care in shutting down any control valves, since large flow can easily create a dangerous water hammer.



CLosing an OS and Y in what direction?



FF should be able to recognize and operate the __________. This valve is easy to spot. Quite often it is labeled.
It is usually a ______, the second largest beside the large supply main.
In addition, the valve is of an unusual design, often an __________ valve, with the feed and discharge at a _______ angle to each other.

2 in. main drain valve.
2 in. pipe.
Angle valve, 90 degree.