Flashcards in Ch. 17 High-Rise Office Bldgs Deck (71):
Bldg codes require bldgs (this high) have construction/fire protection features that are hallmarks of high-rise bldgs
Taller than 6 stories
Occupants should know following actions: (taapo)
Prevent smoke entering rooms.
Obtain fresh air
Any building exceeding _____________ must be ACCORDED same strategies as used in tall high-rises
Length of available ladders
Chain of fire safety (3)
Fire and bldg departments.
Weak link in chain of fire safety
High rise strategic plan: (5)
Determine specific floor.
Verify location before committing handlines.
Begin controlled evacuation.
Gain control of buildings systems.
Confine and extinguish fire.
Designs of high rise fall into 2 eras:
Pre-World War II.
Evacuation in Class I high rises usually means:
Fire floor and floor above initially
Euler's law column
Columns unsupported at their sides can carry only a FRACTION of the weight they can carry when attached at regular intervals
Medium weight office building:
-steel girders and columns, NOT trusses.
-protected by spray-on fireproofing
Prewar era also saw strong concerns for:
Life safety-numerous means of egress, usually remote from each other
Pre war bldgs were: (5)
General theme was reinforce everything.
Steel beam encased in concrete.
No hung ceilings.
Fewer electrical and electronic items.
Prewar high rises, stairways located in:
Fire towers, enclosed in 4-hr fire wall-landings open to outside air
In modern high-rise construction, WORST type of stairs:
Scissor staircases-intertwine with each other, separated by gypsum wall
No central air-conditioning means: (3)
No Ducts to move smoke.
Absence of ducts mans fewer places for hidden fire.
Windows open for horizontal ventilation.
Most important prewar building feature regarding fire spread:
Absence in central air-conditioning systems that serve more than one floor
High-rise office bldg fire require special tactics such as: (3)
1 hr scba.
2 1/2 in. hose.
Solid tip nozzles
Disadvantages of newer style high-rises: (5)
Lightweight bldg materials.
Curtain wall constr.
Wide-open floor spaces.
Key items to determine strategy: (3)
Type of constr (heavy, med, light).
Trusses in fire area.
What type of fireproofing applied
Fires in modern high-rise, the threat of collapse is remote. The greatest threat to life:
Unable to perform rapid effective ventilation
HVAC to direct smoke out of bldg:
Subject to many problems.
Extremely complex operation.
Shut it down.
Prewar high-rises had other features as well that aided fire safety and control: (3)
No hung ceilings/blind spaces.
Fewer electrical and electronic items to act as sources of ignition
Steps to remove smoke and heat
Vertical ventilation up stairways.
Horizontal ventilation out windows.
Ventilation by means of HVAC/smoke-control systems
Two factors outweigh all others in high-rise ventilation:
Wind and Stack Effect
Opening the top of a building is the _________ to understand but often _________ to accomplish.
Deciding to use HVAC, IC must know: (5)
Floor layout, stairs, air shafts/outlets.
Location of FF/civilians.
Endanger FF or civilians by drawing fire toward them
Stack effect noticeable in bldgs:
MORE than 60 feet high
-STRONGER as it gets TALLER.
Answer to mushrooming:
Provide a vent over stairway allowing heated air to escape
Using elevator shafts as vent point NOT RECOMMENDED: (4)
Hoistway door opened; elevator out of service.
Hoistway door opened; FFs fall into shaft.
Hoistway opening at top small; 2-4 sq. ft.
Hoistway doors above fire will allow heat/smoke to floors.
Two unusual phenomenon in high-rises:
Stratification of smoke below top floors (layers or clouds in the bldg).
-temp not enough to rise to top (PPV in stair shafts).
Inverse (reverse) stack effect (smoke at bottom).
-air conditioned bldg in hot weather
_______ is the second biggest problem in high-rise fires?
Gaining access to fire area
In bldgs _____________, using elevators becomes an absolute necessity.
Higher than 20 stories (21 and above)
______ is the total time elapsed from receipt of alarm until effective stream is flowing on fire.
Ch. 17, Following two bldg features work to our advantage:
Sky lobbies found in very large bldgs (more than ____ stories.).
They are a combination of _______ and ______, with an _____ on upper floors.
Express blind-shaft, segregated elevators.
If fire is within ___ floors of lobby or sky lobby, walk up.
Each firefighter should be wearing a ________ and have the cylinder turned on but the ______ shouldn't be in place but should be _________.
Stairwell support is:
1 member for every 2 floors.
Can remove MOST of their protective clothing (keeping close by).
May be possible to use non-suppression personnel (police)
Ops Post manned by ____ and located _____
2 personnel (chief and aide).
1 floor below fire (may operate on fire floor).
Forward staging is located?
What is there?
3 floors below fire.
Reserves - 2 attack teams and 2 support teams (forcible entry)
-3 members each.
Search and Evacuation (SAE)
Located reasonably safe area above fire.
2 members (similar to Ops Post).
Direct and control activities operating above fire floor and floor immediately above.
Sky lobby or other floor not served by elevator that serves fire floor
Begin uncontrolled evacuation (3 phases)
Evacuate those is immediate danger.
Prevent panicky exit those not endangered-prefire ed, zoning of alarm, public address speakers (extra police).
Search the fire floor/all floors above.
High-rise strategy (5)
Determine specific fire floor.
Verify location before committing handlines.
Begin controlled evacuation.
Gain control of HVAC.
Confine/extinguish the fire
Regarding HVAC and smoke in the system, a good policy would be:
To direct building employees to shut down all HVAC systems immediately upon a REPORT of fire.
Team of _____ to stairway and elevator bulkheads.
They may take the elevator to __________ the fire.
From that point on, they must select a stairway that ____________.
2 floors below.
Pierces the roof.
Blind shaft elevator past fire floor
To use HVAC system to direct smoke out of the building, such use should only be undertaken:
Building engineers and
Qualified smoke-control design specialists.
Have engaged in serious prefire planning
Strategy used to control a high-rise fire depends to a large extent on: (2)
Effects its features have on travel of smoke and fire.
Venting Windows on WINDWARD side can have a disastrous effect. The only way to evaluate this is to:
Duplicate the situation on the floor above or below
Guide for venting windows (high-rise)
High-high, low-low is a no-no
Decision to use horizontal ventilation, _________ and then ________. Using _______ or ________ applied to glass will hold larger pieces together. Some buildings have ______ on their windows.
Make a small initial hole to see what happens.
Pull remaining glass into the building.
Selecting an elevator that reaches only to the sky lobby below the fire is _________ during a fire.
A safe use of elevators
Safety precautions to be taken at all elevator operations
Attempt to determine floor accurately.
Fire within eight floors of elevator/sky lobby, walk up.
Each team in elevator has car number, unit and designation recorded by lobby control.
Properly equipped (cylinder on, face piece not in place).
Immediately upon entering car, press Call Cancel.
Use only FF service elevators (proper operation by key/secure means). not fireproof.
Expect problems (tools, emergency stop, precautionary stop)
Purpose for precautionary stops every five floors.
Ensure elevator is responding.
Stop allows FF to step out and verify location.
Allow you to shine a light upward-look for smoke, water, contaminants.
To hold elevator, don't _______. Either _________ or ________.
Stand in car doorway.
Remain inside car pressing door-open OR lay a length of hose across doorway
First arriving units have vital tasks of ________ , ________ and __________.
Locating the fire.
Determining its size and likely path of travels.
Deploying themselves to confine any extension.
First-arriving ladder companies locations
First two ladder companies - fire floor.
One additional truck company - floor above.
For search immediately and extension
Characteristics of lightweight master stream device
Tendency to kickback when lowered to 15-20 degrees, necessary to provide reach and penetration when ceiling 8-9 ft.
*if anchored with two halligan a, upward of 700 gpm
Two unique options for getting through floors to fire floor
Concrete core drill (concrete core cutter).
Concrete cutting chain saw.
*last resort weapons*
2 models of concrete core cutter (core drill) (EG)
Electrical-electric, bulky, easier to use when drilling overhead into slab (⬆️).
Gasoline-diameter 4 in. too small for 2 1/2 in. Bresnan.
3 overlapping holes (shamrock).
*both require pump tank of water to cool bits*
6 in. reinforced floor can be pierced in about 5 minutes (⬇️)
2 models of concrete cutting chainsaw (GH)
Hydraulic-gasoline driven pump, similar to Hurst.
Better suited cutting through from floor below fire (⬆️)
How many lines to fight fire with core construction?
One to advance.
One to initially remain at the stairs to protect the rear.
(Fire around the core and back on itself)
Problem with access stairs in high-rises
First smoke detector to operate could be two floors above the actual fire location
May be the most crucial item when preparing for a high-rise fire
Training ALL levels of firefighters
Building system controls and pre plans usually located at ___________.
Fire command station (FCS)
3 personnel in Systems Unit
Senior building engineer.
FF or officer to act as communicator or coordinator.
One floor below fire.
Responsible for fire floor and floor above.
Copies of same floor diagrams the IC has
Radio communications in high-rise inferior without special devices, such as:
Special antennas in the building.
Purpose of operations post is to:
Take strategy developed by CP and implement on fire floor while directing SPECIFIC TACTICS to be used.
Two members, chief and aide.
*Major function of Ops officer may be to push advance of attack teams*
Attack from more than one location or stairway, a ___________ may have to be designated at each location, reporting back to Ops officer.
separate attack director
Staging area officer and forward staging area should be set up ____________.
Three floors below the fire.
Provides ample storage space (cylinders, tools, hose and personnel).
Area that allows good communication with Ops and CP.
Close proximity to attack stairway