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Flashcards in Ch. 14 Multiple Dwellings Deck (51):
1

MDs pose a high life hazard...

Regardless of time of day

2

Fire at MDs are a made to order situation for:

HFTs

3

Heavy fire showing in 2 or more apartments

Time to bring out 2 1/2 in. hose

4

Apartments in wings may have two exits, one to each staircase but no:

Fire escape

5

The presence of ______, ______, or _______ stairs are critical PREPLANNING information the IC needs for strategy and tactics.

Single, isolated or wing
- Isolated and Wing=officer in command and members on FG.

6

Type of stairs where Staircase maintains constant location on each floor

Return Stairs

7

Difference in PDs vs MDs

PDs = 1-2 families.
MDs = 3 or more families.

8

After first 2 lines stretched and protecting stairway, any add'l lines stretched should:

Take alternate route to avoid overcrowding stairway.
*3 or 4 up one staircase okay for protecting secondary exits, remote area to cut off extension, lines above a fire*.

9

No aerial view or preplanning drawing is available, the ______ may be only people with understanding of overall layout.

Roof team

10

Wings are identified:

Left to right, as command is looking at them. Start with A, then next to the right as B, so on.

11

It is in the ______ that stairways, elevator shafts, compactors, incinerators and other bldg features are found.

Throat
*platform with turntable in line with throat-telescoping boom or elevating platform-no aerial ladder*

12

Ch 14, ___________ likely to be one of the hottest places in bldg other than fire apartment

Stairway that leads to bulkhead

13

______ is the PREFERRED way of reaching most roofs, because it is totally independent of the structure.

Aerial device

14

FIRST choice for reaching the roof, even over aerial device

Adjoining building (if bldgs built in rows) {chOIce = adjOIning}
-much faster and safer.
-unless common cockloft.

15

Greatest danger areas, in order (MDs - Ch 14)

1) Fire floor.
2) floor above fire floor.
3) top floor

16

Interior search team has the fire floor. If the roof team is done on the roof, they will descend via fire escape. Where the fire is dictates where they go:

Fire venting out windows to fire escape (lower floor)-roof team starts at top floor and works down.
Fire on top floor-vent windows of top floor to assist search.

17

Method to put roof members in position to reach trapped victims sooner than any other method

Descent down REAR fire escape.
-particularly fire in vicinity of main entrance.
-best chance of survival.

18

Three factors changed the way FFs look at MDs

Vacant bldg situation (Rust Belt)
-unmaintained, weather.
Ltwght/Truss Construction (Sun Belt).
Partial collapse from metal cornices (collapse zone beneath cornice)

19

Fireproof multiple dwellings are designed to:

Act as our ally

20

Threats when wind and no wind through windows

No wind = routine, threat is smoke (vent stairwell 👍🏻).
Wind = severe, threat is actual flame and high heat (vent stairwell 👎🏻), draws fire to stair.

21

Fans (PPV) useful at stopping chimney effect in stairwell if:

No other exhaust openings nearer the apartment door.
As long as wind remains under 25 mph.

22

Hotstop-M characteristics

-10 x 12 ft.
-1500F unlimited/2000F 15 minutes (adequate 2500F and higher).
-Kevlar ropes on 4 corners.
-lowered from 2 flrs above, tightened 1 flr below.
-squad and rescue companies
-chains lower edge

23

K.O. Fire Curtain's characteristics

-6 x 6 ft.
-light enough, carried by one member (routine tool).
-every ladder company.

24

Floor-below nozzle characteristics

-1 1/2 in. pipe , bent back on itself at 135 degrees.
-connected to any handline.
-15/16 in. tip (180 gpm).
-Close stairway doors, everyone out of halls.
*apartment/residential*

25

Ways to recognize MDs, apart from size and obvious indications (5)

Counting gas or electric meters.
Doorbells or mailboxes.
Fire escape.
Information received "smoke from apt. 4".
Presence of padlocks on interior rooms (SROs)

26

SROs?

"Single room occupancies".
Demand fast reinforcements for search.
Each and every door forced and searched.
Low-income areas with these also areas of highest incidence of fires

27

Self-closing devices removed in?

Especially true in senior citizen apt complexes AND those housing disabled occupants who use wheelchairs and walkers

28

Light and airshafts pose a danger of fire extending ____________ as well as _______________. This is common because of the _____________.

Horizontally across the shaft
Vertically, due to autoexposure or lapping flames

Window layout, often directly above or opposite the window of the fire apartment.

29

Light and airshafts.
While waiting for hoseline, search crews can greatly slow entry of fire by:

Removing all combustible materials, such as curtains and by judicious use of portable extinguishers OR even pots of water from the sink

30

MDs
Two greatest THREATS to the structure in the event of fire are from ________ and ________.

Pipe chases.
Channel rails (spaces around VERTICAL columns)

31

MDs
Elevators are generally required to be built with ________ fire resistance ratings

At least 2 hour

32

Economy of construction often results in _______ being back to back in adjacent apartments.

Bathrooms and kitchens

33

Taking a line above fire and you are working in very heavy smoke conditions, try to find _______________. In this wall usually the biggest pile chase.

The wall directly behind the toilet and open it up

34

_______ may be found in any building that is built with steel columns or I-beams supporting floors. The can appear ___________. Generally steel framing used in Class 3 buildings that are _____________.

Channel rail void
Anywhere in the floor layout (usually in closet)

More than 25 ft wide

35

Importance of positioning a line to protect _____________ cannot be overemphasized.

The main vertical artery, the stairway,

36

Fastest method in selecting stairways is to ________. Layout of ground floor _________ be taken as indicative of the upper floors.

Have a member climb to the second floor and locate proper apartment line.

Shouldn't

37

Members discovering either of these stairways should relay information to the officer in command AND all members on the fireground.

Isolated and Wing

38

All of the staircases connect to a common hallway on each floor

Transverse stairs (FF can transverse from one stairway to another)
*beware of opposing streams*

39

Two members ____________ at all multiple-dwelling fires for rescue, as well as ventilation, even for lower floor fires because:

Must proceed immediately to the roof

People try to escape by running to roof, don't quite make it and collapse on stairs or just inside door on landing.

40

Fire escape to roof
Word of caution on fire escapes (3 points)

Most don't go all the way to the roof
Select fire escape that isn't likely to be threatened by flames venting below you
They are simply dangerous

41

Look for fire escapes and cockloft vents; if they are present, the building is likely ______. If you don't find any, chances are it is a _______.

Class 3

Class 1

42

Staircases back to back.
Each door on the floor separated from the door to the other stairway only by the length of the staircase.
Must go down two floors to find the same orientation

Scissor stairs

43

Fire in these structures are generally confined to apartment of origin and fire extends to floor above, most often by AUTOEXPOSURE.
Relatively routine affairs
Punishing to attack team, due to high heat

Class 1 MDs

44

Class 1 MDs.
One hazard increasingly seen in these buildings:

Cable/tv/internet wires strung along the public hallway in plastic wire molding

45

Severe wind driven fires.
Primarily a ____________
Once building exceeds _________, the height of the building does not play a major role, nor does floor of fire

Cold weather phenomenon.

Eight stories (when Class 1 most often required)

46

Severe wind-driven fire.
Another factor that was discovered is:

Very high wind is NOT required
*several occurred with only 15 mph winds*

47

Severe wind driven fire: ________ is the culprit

Airflow through the building.
*temps in excess of 2,500F*

48

Threats in fireproof residential buildings caused by wind (routine vs severe).

Routine fire-fire stopped by one line, SMOKE in stairs/upper floors is PRIME threat to occupants and easily combated by venting the top of stair/elevator shaft.
Severe fire-threat is ACTUAL FLAME AND HIGH HEAT and venting the stair can draw fire to that stair.

49

PPV pressurize stairwell works as long as: (2)

No other exhaust openings nearer apartment door.
Wind remains under 25 mph

50

Sandwich apartments.
Most serious situations are usually encountered at fires in the _______ apartment.

Down

51

The _________, only found every ____ floors, often have windows, which are an indicator to the presence of sandwich type layouts.

Public hallways
Three