Ch. 12- Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12- Nervous System Deck (126)
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1

brain

coordinates body functions

2

nerves

transmit messages to and from the central nervous system

3

spinal cord

transmits messages to and from the brain

4

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord. sensory information is processed here, motor messages are sent to muscles and glands

5

peripheral nervous system

12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, divided into the autonomic nervous system and somatic nerves

6

neurons

individual nerve cells capable of conducting electrical impulses responding to a stimulus

7

three parts of a neuron

dendrites, cell body, axon

8

dendrites

highly branched projections that receive impulses

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cell body

contains nucleus and many other organelles

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axon

projection from nerve cell body that conducts electrical impulse towards its destination

11

synapse

point at which the axon of one neuron meets dendrite of another neuron

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synaptic cleft

gap between two neurons

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neurotransmitter

chemical messenger that allows impulses to pass across the synaptic cleft

14

neuroglial cells

cells that DO NOT conduct electrical impulses but have various other functions within the neuron, some produce myelin

15

myelin

fatty substance that acts as insulation for many axons so that they can conduct electrical impulses faster

16

grey matter

in the CNS; comprised of unsheathed or uncovered cell bodies and dendrites

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white matter

myelinated nerve fibers

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tracts

bundles of nerve fibers interconnecting different parts of the CNS

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meninges

three membranes that encase and protect the CNS

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four sections of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem

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cerebrum

largest section of the brain, processes thoughts, judgment, memory, problem solving, and language, and divided into four lobes

22

four lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

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cerebral cortex

outer layer of the cerebrum composed of folds of grey matter

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gyrus (gyri)

elevated portions of cerebrum

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sulcus (sulci)

fissures separating the gyri

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cerebral hemispheres

left and right halves of the cerebrum

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frontal lobe

motor function, personality, and speech

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parietal lobe

receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language

29

occipital lobe

vision

30

temporal lobe

hearing and smell