Ch. 12- Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Ch. 12- Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 12- Nervous System Deck (126):
1

brain

coordinates body functions

2

nerves

transmit messages to and from the central nervous system

3

spinal cord

transmits messages to and from the brain

4

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord. sensory information is processed here, motor messages are sent to muscles and glands

5

peripheral nervous system

12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, divided into the autonomic nervous system and somatic nerves

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neurons

individual nerve cells capable of conducting electrical impulses responding to a stimulus

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three parts of a neuron

dendrites, cell body, axon

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dendrites

highly branched projections that receive impulses

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cell body

contains nucleus and many other organelles

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axon

projection from nerve cell body that conducts electrical impulse towards its destination

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synapse

point at which the axon of one neuron meets dendrite of another neuron

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synaptic cleft

gap between two neurons

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neurotransmitter

chemical messenger that allows impulses to pass across the synaptic cleft

14

neuroglial cells

cells that DO NOT conduct electrical impulses but have various other functions within the neuron, some produce myelin

15

myelin

fatty substance that acts as insulation for many axons so that they can conduct electrical impulses faster

16

grey matter

in the CNS; comprised of unsheathed or uncovered cell bodies and dendrites

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white matter

myelinated nerve fibers

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tracts

bundles of nerve fibers interconnecting different parts of the CNS

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meninges

three membranes that encase and protect the CNS

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four sections of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem

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cerebrum

largest section of the brain, processes thoughts, judgment, memory, problem solving, and language, and divided into four lobes

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four lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

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cerebral cortex

outer layer of the cerebrum composed of folds of grey matter

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gyrus (gyri)

elevated portions of cerebrum

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sulcus (sulci)

fissures separating the gyri

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cerebral hemispheres

left and right halves of the cerebrum

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frontal lobe

motor function, personality, and speech

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parietal lobe

receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language

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occipital lobe

vision

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temporal lobe

hearing and smell

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diencephalon

contains thalamus and hypothalamus

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thalamus

composed of grey matter and relays impulses from eyes, ears, and skin to the cerebrum

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hypothalamus

body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, and emotions. also controls ANS, CV system, digestive system, and pituitary gland

34

cerebellum

second largest portion of the brain; coordinates voluntary body movements and maintaining balance and equilibrium

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three components of brain stem

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

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midbrain

pathway for impulses between the brain and spinal cord

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pons

connects cerebellum to rest of brain (pons=bridge)

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medulla oblongata

connects brain to spinal cord; controls respiration, heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure. nerve tracts cross from one side of the brain to control movement and function on the opposite side of the body here

39

ventricles

interconnected cavities in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid

40

where are the four brain ventricles located?

one in each cerebral hemisphere, one in the thalamus, and one in front of the cerebellum

41

cerebrospinal fluid

watery, clear fluid that provides protection from shock or sudden motion to the brain and spinal cord

42

spinal cord function

provide a pathway for impulases traveling to and from the brain

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vertebral column

cavity that contains the spinal cord

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spinal cavity or vertebral canal

continuous canal for the spinal cord formed by the 33 vertebrae

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central canal

canal down the center of the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid

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ascending tracts

myelinated white matter on the outside of the spinal cord that carries sensory information up to the brain

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descending tracts

myelinated white matter on the outside of the spinal cord that carries motor information down to a peripheral nerve

48

meninges

three layers of connective tissue membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord

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dura mater

"tough mother" outermost layer, tough, fibrous sac

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subdural space

space between the dura mater and arachnoid layers

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arachnoid layer

thin, delicate layer attached to the pia mater by weblike filaments. between the subdural space and subarachnoid space

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subarachnoid space

space between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater, contains CSF that cushions the brain from the outside

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pia mater

"soft mother" innermost membrane layer and sits directly on the brain and spinal cord

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nerve root

point where either type of nerve is attached to the central nervous system

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afferent neurons

aka sensory neurons, carry sensory information from a sensory receptor to the CNS

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efferent neurons

aka motor neurons, carry motor information from the CNS to muscles or glands out in the body

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ganglion

knot like mass of nerve cell bodies of neurons forming the nerves

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autonomic nervous system

controls involuntary bodily functions, and is separated into the parasympathetic and sympathetic branch

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sympathetic branch

"fight or flight" reaction during times of stress and crisis

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parasympathetic branch

"rest and digest" reaction, counterbalance to the sympathetic branch

61

somatic nerves

serve skin and skeletal muscles and are mainly involved with voluntary bodily functions. they carry motor commands to skeletal muscles

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intrathecal

pertaining to within the meninges

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absence seizure

epileptic seizure that lasts only a few seconds to half a minute, characterized by a loss of awareness and absence of activity

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analgesia

absence of pain

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aphasia

inability to communicate verbally or in writing

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ataxia

lack of muscle coordination

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aura

sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling an unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic seizure or migraine headache

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cephalalgia

headache

69

convulsion

severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations

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delirium

abnormal mental state characterized by confusion, disorientation, and agitation

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dysphasia

difficulty communicating verbally or in writing

72

focal seizure

localized seizure often affecting one limb

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hemiparesis

weakness or loss of motion on one side of the body

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hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body

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hyperesthesia

abnormally heightened sense of feeling, pain, or touch

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neuralgia

nerve pain

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palsy

temporary or permanent loss of the ability to control movement

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paresthesia

abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling

79

tonic-clonic seizure

severe epileptic seizure characterized by a loss of consciousness and convulsions. alternates between strong continuous muscle spasms and rhythmic muscle contraction and relaxation

80

astrocytoma

tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes, one type of neuroglial cells

81

cerebral aneurysm

localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel,

82

cerebral contusion

bruising of the brain from a blow or impact

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cerebral palsy

nonprogressive brain damage resulting from a defect, trauma, or oxygen deprivation at the time of birth

84

cerebrovascular accident

development of an infarct due to loss in blood supply to an area of the brain, aka stroke

85

epilepsy

recurrent disorder of the brain in which seizures and loss of consciousness occur as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity of brain neurons

86

hydrocephalus

accumulation of CSF in the brain ventricles, causing the head to be enlarged

87

Reye syndrome

combination of symptoms that include acute encephalopathy and damage to various organs, and is linked with taking aspirin

88

transient ischemic attack

temporary interference with blood flow to the brain, causing dizziness, numbness, and hemiparesis, and may lead to stroke

89

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

muscle weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord

90

meningocele

congenital condition in which the meninges protrude through an opening in the vertebral column

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myelomeningocele

meninges and spinal cord protrude through an opening in vertebral column

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poliomyelitis

viral inflammation of grey matter of spinal cord

93

spina bifida

congenital defect in the walls of spinal canal in which laminae of vertebra do not close and can result in a meningocele or myelomeningocele

94

Bell's palsy

one sided facial paralysis due to inflammation of the faciel nerves

95

Guillain-Barré syndrome

disease of nervous system in which nerves lose their myelin covering

96

multiple sclerosis

inflammatory disease of CNS in which there is extreme weakness and numbness due to loss of myelin from nerves

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myasthenia gravis

severe muscle weakness and fatigue due to insufficient neurotransmitter at a synapse

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radiculitis

inflammation of a nerve root

99

radiculopathy

condition that occurs when herniated nucleus pulposus puts pressure on a nerve root

100

shingles

painful blisters on the body along a nerve path

101

meningioma

tumor in meninges

102

meningitis

inflammation of meninges

103

subdural hematoma

mass of blood forming beneath dura mater if meninges are torn by trauma

104

cerebrospinal fluid analysis

laboratory examination of the clear, watery, colorless fluid from within brain and spinal cord

105

brain scan

image of the brain taken after injection of radioactive isotopes

106

cerebral angiography

xray of blood vessels of brain

107

echoencephalography

recording of ultrasonic echoes of brain

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myelogram

xray of spinal cord

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myelography

xray of spinal cord after injection of dye

110

positron emission tomography

image of brain produced by measuring gamma rays emitted from brain after injecting glucose tagged with positively charged isotopes

111

Babinski reflex

reflex test to determine lesions and abnormalities in the nervous system

112

electroencephalogram

record of brain's electrical patterns

113

electroencephalography

recording electrical activity of brain by placing electrodes at various positions on scalp

114

lumbar puncture

puncture with a needle into the lumbar area to withdraw fluid for examination and for the injection of anesthesia

115

nerve conduction velocity

test that measures how fast an impulse travels along a nerve

116

nerve block

injection of regional anesthetic to stop the passage of sensory or pain impulses along a nerve path

117

carotid endarterectomy

removing an obstruction in the carotid artery

118

cerebrospinal fluid shunts

bypass is created to drain CSF

119

laminectomy

removal of a portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve

120

analgesic

treat minor to moderate pain without loss of consciousness
ex) aspirin, Bayer, Ecotrin, acetaminophen, Tylenol, ibuprofen, Motrin

121

anesthetic

produces a loss of sensation or a loss of consciousness
ex) lidocaine, Xylocaine, pentobarbital, Nembutal, propofol, Dprivan, procaine, Novocain

122

anticonvulsant

reduces excitability of neurons and prevents uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures
ex) carbamazepine, Tegretol, phenobarbital, Nembutal

123

dopaminergic drugs

treats Parkinson's by either replacing the dopamine that is lacking or increasing the strength of dopamine that is present
ex) levodopa, L-dopa, Larodopa, levodopa/carbidopa, Sinernet

124

hypnotic

promotes sleep
ex) secobarbital, Seconal, termazepam, Restoril

125

narcotic analgesic

treats severe pain, has the potential to be habit forming if taken for a prolonged period of time
ex) morphine, MS Contin, oxycodone, OxyContin, meperidine, Demerol

126

sedative

has relaxing or calming effect
ex) amobarbital, Amytal, batabarbital, Butisol