MT Ch. 7-Respiratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MT Ch. 7-Respiratory Deck (96):
1

What structures comprise the respiratory system?

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs

2

Three parts of the process of respiration

ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration

3

ventilation

flow of air between outside environment and lungs

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inhalation

flow of air into lungs, brings oxygen in

5

exhalation

flow of air out of lungs, removes carbon dioxide from body

6

external respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place in the lungs. oxygen enters bloodstream from lungs, carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and enters lungs

7

internal respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level. oxygen leaves the bloodstream and is delivered to tissues, and carbon dioxide (formed from metabolism) enters bloodstream from tissues and is transported back to lungs

8

nares

two external openings in nose where air enters

9

nasal septum

cartilaginous plate that divides the nasal cavity in half

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palate

roof of the mouth; separates nasal cavity from the mouth

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mucous membrane

covers walls of nasal cavity, nasal septum, and most of the respiratory tract. secretes mucus

12

mucus

sticky fluid secreted by mucous membrane that traps dust and bacteria in the air and moisturizes inhaled air

13

cilia

very small hairs that line the opening of the nose and much of the airways. filter out large dirt particles before they can enter the lungs

14

paranasal sinuses

air filled cavities located within the facial bones. give resonance to voice during sound production

15

three parts of the pharynx

nasopharynx (upper), oropharynx (middle), laryngopharynx (lower)

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function of tonsils

keep pathogens from entering the body

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adenoids/pharyngeal tonsils

located in nasopharynx behind the nose

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palatine tonsils

located in oropharynx behind the mouth

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lingual tonsils

located in oropharynx behind the mouth

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eustachian tube

auditory tube, opening found in nasopharynx. the other end is in the middle ear. it opens to equalize air pressure between the middle ear and outside

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vocal cords

located in the larynx. folds of membranous tissue that produce sound by vibrating as air passes through the glottis

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glottis

opening between the two vocal cords

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epiglottis

flap of cartilaginous tissue above the glottis that keeps food and liquid from being inhaled into the lungs

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thyroid cartilage

one of the cartilages that lines the walls of the larynx. forms the adam's apple. larger in males and helps produce deeper voice

25

larynx

located between pharynx and trachea

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trachea

passageway for air that extends from pharynx and larynx down to main bronchi

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bronchus

tube that enters one of the lungs; left and right

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bronchioles

narrowest branches of bronchi, end in a small group of air sacs

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alveoli

small group of air sacs at the end of a bronchiole; 150 million in each lung

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pulmonary capillaries

capillaries from the pulmonary blood vessels that encase the alveolus

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respiratory membrane

walls of alveoli and capillaries. exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveolus and blood in the capillaries takes place across this

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lungs

total collection of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli

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pleura

double membrane that protects the lungs

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parietal pleura

outer membrane around lungs which also lines the wall of the chest cavity

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visceral pleura

inner membrane around lungs which sticks to the surface of the lungs

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pleural cavity

sac around each lung

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serous fluid

fluid between two layers of the pleura that reduces friction when the two layers rub together

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lobes

divisions of the lungs. right lung contains 3 (right upper, right middle, and right lower) and left lung contains 2 (left upper and left lower)

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apex

pointed superior portion of the lung

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base

broader lower portion of the lung

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hilum

area along the medial border of lungs where entry of structures like the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, and nerves occur

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mediastinum

area between the lungs. contains heart, aorta, esophagus, thymus gland, and trachea

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respiratory therapists

conduct pulmonary function tests to help determine the functioning level of the respiratory system

44

pulmonary function test

measuring the volume of air flowing in and out of the lungs to determine lung capacity

45

diaphragm

separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity that contracts to decrease pressure in the thoracic cavity, allowing air to flow into the lungs to equalize the pressure

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intercostal muscles

between the ribs; raise the ribcage to enlarge the thoracic cavity to make it easier for air to flow into the lungs

47

vital signs

VS; respiration, pulse, temperature, skin color, blood pressure, reaction of pupils

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anosmia

lack of sense of smell

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anoxia

receiving almost no oxygen from inhaled air

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aphonia

being unable to produce sounds

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apnea

not breathing

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asphyxia

lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness and death if not corrected immediately

53

aspiration

withdrawing fluid from a body cavity using suction

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bradypnea

breathing too slowly

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bronchiectasis

dilated bronchus

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bronchospasm

involuntary muscle spasm of the smooth muscle in the wall of the bronchus

57

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

abnormal breathing pattern where there are long periods of apnea followed by deeper, rapid breathing. named for a scottish physician and an irish surgeon

58

clubbing

abnormal widening and thickening of the ends of the fingers and toes associated with chronic oxygen deficiency

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crackles

abnormal sound made during inspiration, usually indicates the presence of fluid or mucus in the airways

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dysphonia

difficulty producing sounds or producing abnormal sounds

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dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing

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epistaxis

nosebleed

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eupnea

normal breathing

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hemoptysis

coughing up blood

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hemothorax

blood in the chest cavity

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hypercapnia

excessive carbon dioxide in the body

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hyperpnea

deep breaths

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hypocapnia

insufficient carbon dioxide levels

69

hypopnea

shallow breathing

70

hypoxemia

insufficient oxygen in bloodstream

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hypoxia

receiving insufficient oxygen from inhaled air

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laryngoplegia

paralysis of muscles controlling the larynx

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orthopnea

the patient only feels like they can breathe while sitting straight up

74

patent

open or unblocked, such as a patent airway

75

pleural rub

grating sound made when the two layers of the pleura rub together during respiration

76

pleurodynia

pleural pain

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pyothorax

pus in the chest cavity

78

rhonchi

somewhat musical sound during expiration, often found in asthma or infection. aka wheezing

79

sputum

phlegm or mucus coughed up through the mouth

80

stridor

high-pitched noisy breathing sound made when there is an obstruction of the bronchus or larynx. sound made in a crouping cough in children

81

croup

acute respiratory condition in infants and children characterized by barking type of cough or stridor

82

diphtheria

bacterial upper respiratory infection characterized by formation of thick membranous film across throat and high mortality rate

83

pertussis

whooping cough. infectious bacterial disease of upper respiratory system

84

asthma

disease caused by allergens that results in constriction of the bronchial airways, dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing

85

bronchogenic carcinoma

malignant tumor originating in the bronchi

86

adult respiratory distress syndrome

acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, and hypoxemia

87

anthracosis

pneumoconiosis that develops from collection of coal dust in the lung. aka black lung or miners lung

88

atelectasis

alveoli in a portion of the lung collapse, preventing respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

progressive, chronic, and usually irreversible group of conditions where the lungs have decreased capacity

90

cystic fibrosis

hereditary condition causing exocrine glands to malfunction and produce thick mucus that causes severe congestion within lungs and digestive system

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emphysema

destruction of walls of alveoli, resulting in fewer overexpanded air sacs. may not be able to breathe except in a sitting or standing position

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histoplasmosis

fungus found in dust and pigeon and chicken droppings that causes pulmonary infection

93

infant respiratory distress syndrome

characterized by tachypnea and respiratory grunting caused by a lack of surfactant necessary to keep lungs inflated

94

Legionnaire's disease

severe, often fatal bacterial infection characterized by pneumonia and liver and kidney damage

95

Mycoplasma pneumonia

less severe but longer lasting form of pneumonia

96

pneumoconiosis

result of inhaling environmental particles that become toxic