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Flashcards in MT Ch. 4-musculoskeletal Deck (580):
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Chiropractic

Profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of misalignment conditions of spine and musculoskeletal system

1

Orthopedics

Diagnosis and treatment of conditions of musculoskeletal system

2

Orthotics

Making and fitting orthopedic appliances such as braces or splints

3

Podiatry

Diagnosis and treatment of foot and lower leg disorders

4

Prosthetics

Making artificial body parts

5

Arthralgia

Joint pain

6

Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa

7

Callus

Mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during healing

8

Chondromalacia

Softening of cartilage

9

Crepitation

Noise made when bones or cartilage rub together in conditions such as arthritis

10

Ostealgia

Bone pain

11

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow

12

Synovitis

Inflammation of synovial membrane

13

Closed fracture

Fracture that doesn't break skin Aka simple fracture

14

Colles' fracture

Common type of wrist fracture

15

Comminuted fracture

Bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into small pieces

16

Open fracture

Fracture that breaks the skin Aka compound fracture

17

Compression fracture

Loss of height of a vertebral body caused by trauma or osteoporosis

18

Fracture

Broken bone

19

Greenstick fracture

Incomplete break; one side is broken and the other side is bent. Commonly found in children

20

Impacted fracture

Bone fragments are pushed into each other

21

Oblique fracture

Fracture line is at an angle

22

Pathologic fracture

Caused by diseased or weakened bone

23

Spiral fracture

Fracture line spirals around the bone, longer healing time

24

Stress fracture

Caused by repetitive low-impact forces such as running

25

Transverse fracture

Fracture line is straight across bone

26

Chondroma

Tumor formed in cartilage

27

Ewing's sarcoma

Cancerous growth in shaft of long bones that spreads through periosteum

28

Exostosis

Bone spur

29

Myeloma

Tumor in the bone marrow

30

Osteochondroma

Tumor made of bone and cartilage, usually benign

31

Osteogenic sarcoma

Cancer in the osteocytes at the ends of long bones. Most common type of bone cancer

32

Osteomalacia

Softening of the bones due to insufficient calcium

33

Osteopathy

General term for any bone disease

34

Osteoporosis

Bones become more porous and more prone to fracture and injury

35

Paget's disease

Common metabolic disease of bones that destroys and deforms bones

36

Rickets

Bone deformities and bowed legs in early childhood for insufficient calcium and vitamin D

37

Ankylosing spondylitis

Inflammatory spinal condition resulting in gradual stiffening and fusion of vertebrae

38

Herniated nucleus pulposus

Herniation/protrusion of an intervertebral disk Aka herniated disk

39

Kyphosis

Increase in outward curvature of thoracic region of spine Aka hunchback

40

Lordosis

Increase in forward curvature of lumbar region of spine Aka swayback

41

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine

42

Spina bifida

Vertebrae fails to fully form around spinal cord

43

Spinal stenosis

Narrowing of spinal canal causing pressure on cord and nerves

44

Spondylolisthesis

Forward sliding of a lumbar vertebrae

45

Spondylosis

Any degenerative condition of the vertebral column, specifically ankylosing of spine

46

Whiplash

Cervical muscle and ligament sprain as result of sudden movement forward and backward

47

Bunion

Inflammation of bursa of first metatarsophalangeal joint (base of big toe)

48

Dislocation

Bones in a joint are displaced from alignment

49

Osteoarthritis

Arthritis resulting in degeneration of bones and joints (bone against bone)

50

Rheumatoid arthritis

Chronic form of arthritis that results in crippling deformities

51

Sprain

Damage to ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching

52

Subluxation

Incomplete dislocation: alignment is disrupted but bones remain intact

53

Systemic lupus erythematosis

Chronic inflammatory disease affecting many systems that may include joint pain and arthritis

54

Talipes

Misalignment of the ankle joint and foot Aka club foot

55

Arthrogram

X-ray record of a joint

56

Arthrography

Process of xraying a joint

57

Bone scan

Patient is given radioactive dye and scanning equipment is used to examine bones

58

Dual-energy absorptiometry

Measurement of bone density for detection of osteoporosis

59

Myelography

Study of spinal column after injecting contrast material

60

Radiography

Diagnostic imaging procedure using X-rays

61

Arthroscope

Instrument used to look inside a joint

62

Arthroscopy

Examining a joint using an arthroscope

63

Arthrocentesis

Puncture of a joint to withdraw fluid

64

Orthotic

Orthopedic appliance used to prevent or correct deformities

65

Prosthesis

Artificial part used as a substitute for a body part

66

Amputation

Partial or complete removal of a limb

67

Arthroclasia

Surgically break a fused joint

68

Arthrodesis

Fusing the bones of a joint together

69

Arthroscopic surgery

Surgery performed while using an arthroscope to view the structure

70

Arthrotomy

Cutting into a joint

71

Bone graft

Bone taken from the patient used to take the place of a removed bone at another site

72

Bunionectomy

Removal of the bursa at the joint of the great toe

73

Bursectomy

Surgical removal of a bursa

74

Chondrectomy

Surgical removal of cartilage

75

Chondroplasty

Surgical repair of cartilage

76

Craniotomy

Cutting into the skull

77

Laminectomy

Surgical removal of the lamina, the vertebral posterior arch to correct back problems

78

Osteoclasia

Surgically break a bond to for

79

Osteotome

Instrument used to cut into bone

80

Osteotomy

Procedure involving cutting into bone

81

Percutaneous diskectomy

Thin tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk and material is sucked out

82

Synovectomy

Surgical removal of synovial membrane

83

Total hip arthroplasty

Surgical repair of the hip by implanting a prosthetic joint

84

Total knee arthroplasty

Surgical repair of knee by implanting a prosthetic knee joint

85

Cast

Using a solid material to immobilize part of the body

86

Fixation

Procedure to stabilize a fractured joint while healing, external and internal fixation

87

External fixation

Casts, splints, and ions inserted through skin

88

Internal fixation

Pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires applied during open reduction

89

Reduction

Correction of a fracture by realignment of fragments, closed and open reductions

90

Open reduction

Correcting a fracture by going into the body

91

Closed reduction

Correcting a fracture without entering the body

92

Traction

Pulling a fractured or dislocated limb to restore alignment

93

Bone reabsorption inhibitor

Medications that reduce reabsorption of bones, improves osteoporosis and Paget's disease Ex) fosamax

94

Calcium supplements and vitamin D therapy

Maintains high calcium in order to maintain bone density, improves osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and rickets Ex) citracal or oystercal

95

Corticosteroids

Produced by adrenal cortex and has strong anti-inflammatory properties, treats rheumatoid arthritis Ex) prednisone

96

Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs

Provide mild pain and inflammatory relief Ex) Advil, aleve, ibuprofen

97

Fascial

Pertaining to fascia

98

Tendinous

Pertaining to tendons

99

Kinesiology

Study of movement, how it's produced, and muscles involved

100

Adhesion

Scar tissue in the fascia surrounding a muscle making it difficult to move the muscle

101

Atonia

Without muscle tone

102

Atrophy

Poor muscle development

103

Bradykinesia

Slow movement

104

Contracture

Shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia making it difficult to move the muscle

105

Dyskinesia

Painful movement

106

Dystonia

Abnormal muscle tone

107

Hyperkinesia

Excessive movement

108

Hypertonia

Excessive muscle tone

109

Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle bulk as result of use

110

Hypokinesia

Insufficient movement

111

Hypotonia

Insufficient muscle tone

112

Intermittent claudication

Severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles (inadequate blood supply)

113

Myalgia

Muscle pain

114

Myasthenia

Muscle weakness

115

Myotonia

Muscle tone

116

Spasm

Sudden involuntary muscle contraction

117

Tenodynia

Tendon pain

118

Fascilitis

Inflammation of fascia

119

Fibromyalgia

Widespread pain in muscles

120

Lateral epicondylitis

Inflammation of muscle attachment to lateral epicondyle of the elbow Aka tennis elbow

121

Muscular dystrophy

Progressive muscle degeneration

122

Myopathy

General term for muscle disease

123

Myorrhexis

Tearing a muscle

124

Polymyositis

Inflammation of two or more muscles

125

Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy

Muscle tissue is replaced with fatty tissue, making the muscles falsely appear strong Aka Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

126

Torticollis

Severe neck spasms pulling the head to the side Aka crick in the neck

127

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Pain of finger flexor tendons and median nerves in the wrist caused by repetitive motion

128

Ganglion cyst

Cyst on a tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle

129

Rotator cuff injury

Injury to the joint capsule of the shoulder which is reinforced by tendons from several shoulder muscles

130

Strain

Damage to muscles due to over stretching

131

Tendinitis

Inflammation of a tendon

132

Creatine phosphokinase

Enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle that is elevated in disorders such as heart attack, MD, and other skeletal muscle disorders

133

Deep tendon reflex

Striking muscle tendon with a reflection hammer to see if the muscle contracts

134

Electromyogram

Record of muscle contractions via electrical stimulation

135

Electromyography

Recording the strength of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation

136

Muscle biopsy

Removing muscle tissue for examination

137

Carpal tunnel release

Cutting the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by CTS

138

Fasciotomy

Procedure that cuts into the fascia

139

Myoplasty

Surgical repair of a muscle

140

Myorrhaphy

Suturing a muscle

141

Tendoplasty

Surgical repair of a tendon

142

Tendotomy

Procedure that cuts into a tendon

143

Tenodesis

Anchoring the tendons that move a joint

144

Tenoplasty

Surgical repair of tendon

145

Tenorrhaphy

Suturing a tendon

146

Skeletal muscle relaxants

Reduce muscle spasms Ex) flexeril

147

Abduction

Movement away from the body

148

Adduction

Movement toward the body

149

Flexion

Bending

150

Extension

Straightening

151

Dorsiflexion

Backward bending of hand or foot

152

Plantar flexion

Bending the sole of the foot and pointing toes down

153

Eversion

Turning outward

154

Inversion

Turning inward

155

Pronation

Turn downward or backward with hand or foot

156

Supination

Turn hand or foot upward

157

Elevation

Raise a body part

158

Depression

Downward movement

159

Circumduction

Circular movement from a central point

160

Opposition

Moving thumb away from palm

161

Rotation

Moving around a central axis

162

Bone marrow produces what?

Blood cells

163

Joint

Section where two bones meet

164

What holds bones together at the joint?

Ligaments

165

Osseous tissue

Another name for bone

166

Ossification

Gradual process beginning before birth in which bones are formed

167

Cartilage

Flexible tissue that makes up the entire fetal skeleton and is found in ears, nose, etc in adults

168

Osteoblasts

Immature bone cells that replace cartilage in the fetal skeleton

169

Osteocytes

Mature osteoblasts in adult bones

170

Long bones

Longer than they are wide, most bones in the human body Ex) femur and humerus

171

Short bones

Roughly as long as they are wide Ex) carpals and tarsals

172

Irregular bones

Their shape is irregular Ex) vertebrae

173

Flat bones

Usually plate shaped. Ex) sternum, scapulae, and pelvis

174

Diaphysis

Central portion of long bones

175

Epiphysis

The ends of a long bone

176

Articulate cartilage

Cartilage that covers the epiphysis to prevent bone from rubbing bone

177

Periosteum

Thin connective tissue membrane that covers the remaining surface of each bone

178

Compact bone

Hard exterior surface of bone, also called cortical bone

179

Spongy bone

Found inside the bone, also called cancellous bone

180

Red bone marrow

Found in the spaces of spongy bone, manufactures most of the blood cells

181

Medullary cavity

Open cavity in the center of the diaphysis

182

Yellow bone marrow

Found in the medullary cavity, starts out in life as red bone marrow but gradually converts to yellow. Made mainly of fat cells

183

Process

General term for any bony projection

184

Head

Large, smooth ball shaped end on a long bone May be separated from the body of the bone by a narrow area called the neck

185

Condyle

Smooth, rounded portion at the opposite end of the bone than the head

186

Epicondyle

Small projection on or above a condyle

187

Trochanter

Large rough process for attachment of a muscle Greater trochanter, trochanteric line, lesser trochanter

188

Tubercle

Small, rough process that provides attachment for tendons and muscles

189

Tuberosity

Large, rough process that provides attachment for tendons and muscles

190

Sinus

Hollow cavity within a bone

191

Foramen

Smooth, round opening fir nerves and blood vessels

192

Fossa

Shallow cavity or depression on surface of bone

193

Fissure

Slit-type opening

194

Axial skeleton

Head, neck, spine, chest, and trunk

195

Appendicular skeleton

Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper extremities, and lower extremities

196

Cranium bones

One frontal, two parietal, two temporal, two ethmoid, two sphenoid, and one occipital

197

Facial bones

Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, lacrimal

198

Hyoid bone

U-shaped bone in the neck between the mandible and larynx, attachment for swallowing and speech muscles

199

Trunk of body

Vertebral column, sternum, rib cage

200

5 sections of vertebral column and how many vertebrae each has

Cervical (5), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum (1, 5 fused), and coccyx (1, 3-5 fused)

201

Intervertebral disc

Between each vertebra from cervical through lumbar

202

Floating ribs

Lowest two of the twelve pairs of ribs, they are only attached to the vertebral column while the rest attach to the vertebral column and the sternum

203

Pectoral girdle

Clavicle and scapula bones, attaches upper extremities to the axial skeleton

204

Bones of upper extremities

Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges

205

Pelvic girdle

Aka os coxae or innominate bone Contains ilium(plate pelvic bone), ischium(loop pelvic bone), and pubis(above the loop)

206

Bones of the lower extremities

Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

207

How many phalanges on the fingers and toes?

28 each, three in each finger/toe and two in each thumb/big toe

208

Articulation

When two or more bones meet, a joint

209

Three types of joints

Synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous

210

Synovial joints

Most joints in the body, freely moving Enclosed by a joint capsule

211

Joint capsule

Lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint Ex) ball and socket joint at the shoulder and hip

212

Bursa

Saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane Commonly between bones and ligaments or tendons, they reduce friction

213

Fibrous joints

Allow almost no movement, the ends of the bones are joined by fibrous tissue Ex) sutures of the skull

214

Cartilaginous joints

Slight movement but hold bones firmly in place by cartilage Ex) pubic symphysis, where left and right pubic bonds meet in the front of the pubis

215

Muscles

Bundles of parallel muscle fibers that produce movement when contracted

216

Three types of muscle

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

217

Skeletal muscle

Striated, either directly or indirectly attached to a bone

218

Fascia

Layers of connective tissue that surround skeletal muscle

219

Tendon

Tapered area at the end of the fascia that anchors into the periosteum of the bone

220

Motor neurons

Stimulate skeletal muscles

221

Myoneural junction

Point where the motor nerve and skeletal muscle fiber come into contact

222

Smooth muscle

Sometimes referred to as visceral muscle because it is usually found in internal organs and blood vessels

223

Cardiac muscle

Also called myocardium, it makes up the wall of the heart Striated, less dense striations than skeletal muscle

224

Rectus abdominis

Straight abdominal muscle

225

Sternocleidomastoid

Named for two origins, sternum and clavicle, and single insertion (mastoid process)

226

Gluteus Maximus

Rump area, large

227

Flexor carpi and extensor carpi

Produce flexion and extension at the wrist

228

External oblique muscle

Abdominal muscle whose fibers run at an oblique angle

229

Biceps

Muscle in upper arm that has two (bi) connecting points

230

Origin

Less moving bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle starts

231

Insertion

More movable bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle ends

232

Action

Type of movement a muscle produces

233

Antagonistic pairs

Pair of muscles around a joint that produce opposite actions

234

Profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of misalignment conditions of spine and musculoskeletal system

Chiropractic

235

Diagnosis and treatment of conditions of musculoskeletal system

Orthopedics

236

Making and fitting orthopedic appliances such as braces or splints

Orthotics

237

Diagnosis and treatment of foot and lower leg disorders

Podiatry

238

Making artificial body parts

Prosthetics

239

Joint pain

Arthralgia

240

Inflammation of a bursa

Bursitis

241

Mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during healing

Callus

242

Softening of cartilage

Chondromalacia

243

Noise made when bones or cartilage rub together in conditions such as arthritis

Crepitation

244

Bone pain

Ostealgia

245

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow

Osteomyelitis

246

Inflammation of synovial membrane

Synovitis

247

Fracture that doesn't break skin Aka simple fracture

Closed fracture

248

Common type of wrist fracture

Colles' fracture

249

Bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into small pieces

Comminuted fracture

250

Fracture that breaks the skin Aka compound fracture

Open fracture

251

Loss of height of a vertebral body caused by trauma or osteoporosis

Compression fracture

252

Broken bone

Fracture

253

Incomplete break; one side is broken and the other side is bent. Commonly found in children

Greenstick fracture

254

Bone fragments are pushed into each other

Impacted fracture

255

Fracture line is at an angle

Oblique fracture

256

Caused by diseased or weakened bone

Pathologic fracture

257

Fracture line spirals around the bone, longer healing time

Spiral fracture

258

Caused by repetitive low-impact forces such as running

Stress fracture

259

Fracture line is straight across bone

Transverse fracture

260

Tumor formed in cartilage

Chondroma

261

Cancerous growth in shaft of long bones that spreads through periosteum

Ewing's sarcoma

262

Bone spur

Exostosis

263

Tumor in the bone marrow

Myeloma

264

Tumor made of bone and cartilage, usually benign

Osteochondroma

265

Cancer in the osteocytes at the ends of long bones. Most common type of bone cancer

Osteogenic sarcoma

266

Softening of the bones due to insufficient calcium

Osteomalacia

267

General term for any bone disease

Osteopathy

268

Bones become more porous and more prone to fracture and injury

Osteoporosis

269

Common metabolic disease of bones that destroys and deforms bones

Paget's disease

270

Bone deformities and bowed legs in early childhood for insufficient calcium and vitamin D

Rickets

271

Inflammatory spinal condition resulting in gradual stiffening and fusion of vertebrae

Ankylosing spondylitis

272

Herniation/protrusion of an intervertebral disk Aka herniated disk

Herniated nucleus pulposus

273

Increase in outward curvature of thoracic region of spine Aka hunchback

Kyphosis

274

Increase in forward curvature of lumbar region of spine Aka swayback

Lordosis

275

Lateral curvature of the spine

Scoliosis

276

Vertebrae fails to fully form around spinal cord

Spina bifida

277

Narrowing of spinal canal causing pressure on cord and nerves

Spinal stenosis

278

Forward sliding of a lumbar vertebrae

Spondylolisthesis

279

Any degenerative condition of the vertebral column, specifically ankylosing of spine

Spondylosis

280

Cervical muscle and ligament sprain as result of sudden movement forward and backward

Whiplash

281

Inflammation of bursa of first metatarsophalangeal joint (base of big toe)

Bunion

282

Bones in a joint are displaced from alignment

Dislocation

283

Arthritis resulting in degeneration of bones and joints (bone against bone)

Osteoarthritis

284

Chronic form of arthritis that results in crippling deformities

Rheumatoid arthritis

285

Damage to ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching

Sprain

286

Incomplete dislocation: alignment is disrupted but bones remain intact

Subluxation

287

Chronic inflammatory disease affecting many systems that may include joint pain and arthritis

Systemic lupus erythematosis

288

Misalignment of the ankle joint and foot Aka club foot

Talipes

289

X-ray record of a joint

Arthrogram

290

Process of xraying a joint

Arthrography

291

Patient is given radioactive dye and scanning equipment is used to examine bones

Bone scan

292

Measurement of bone density for detection of osteoporosis

Dual-energy absorptiometry

293

Study of spinal column after injecting contrast material

Myelography

294

Diagnostic imaging procedure using X-rays

Radiography

295

Instrument used to look inside a joint

Arthroscope

296

Examining a joint using an arthroscope

Arthroscopy

297

Puncture of a joint to withdraw fluid

Arthrocentesis

298

Orthopedic appliance used to prevent or correct deformities

Orthotic

299

Artificial part used as a substitute for a body part

Prosthesis

300

Partial or complete removal of a limb

Amputation

301

Surgically break a fused joint

Arthroclasia

302

Fusing the bones of a joint together

Arthrodesis

303

Surgery performed while using an arthroscope to view the structure

Arthroscopic surgery

304

Cutting into a joint

Arthrotomy

305

Bone taken from the patient used to take the place of a removed bone at another site

Bone graft

306

Removal of the bursa at the joint of the great toe

Bunionectomy

307

Surgical removal of a bursa

Bursectomy

308

Surgical removal of cartilage

Chondrectomy

309

Surgical repair of cartilage

Chondroplasty

310

Cutting into the skull

Craniotomy

310

Cutting into the skull

Craniotomy

311

Surgical removal of the lamina, the vertebral posterior arch to correct back problems

Laminectomy

311

Surgical removal of the lamina, the vertebral posterior arch to correct back problems

Laminectomy

312

Surgically break a bond to for

Osteoclasia

312

Surgically break a bond to for

Osteoclasia

313

Instrument used to cut into bone

Osteotome

313

Instrument used to cut into bone

Osteotome

314

Procedure involving cutting into bone

Osteotomy

314

Procedure involving cutting into bone

Osteotomy

315

Thin tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk and material is sucked out

Percutaneous diskectomy

315

Thin tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk and material is sucked out

Percutaneous diskectomy

316

Surgical removal of synovial membrane

Synovectomy

316

Surgical removal of synovial membrane

Synovectomy

317

Surgical repair of the hip by implanting a prosthetic joint

Total hip arthroplasty

318

Surgical repair of knee by implanting a prosthetic knee joint

Total knee arthroplasty

318

Surgical repair of knee by implanting a prosthetic knee joint

Total knee arthroplasty

319

Using a solid material to immobilize part of the body

Cast

319

Using a solid material to immobilize part of the body

Cast

320

Procedure to stabilize a fractured joint while healing, external and internal fixation

Fixation

320

Procedure to stabilize a fractured joint while healing, external and internal fixation

Fixation

321

Casts, splints, and ions inserted through skin

External fixation

322

Pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires applied during open reduction

Internal fixation

323

Correction of a fracture by realignment of fragments, closed and open reductions

Reduction

323

Correction of a fracture by realignment of fragments, closed and open reductions

Reduction

324

Correcting a fracture by going into the body

Open reduction

325

Correcting a fracture without entering the body

Closed reduction

326

Pulling a fractured or dislocated limb to restore alignment

Traction

326

Pulling a fractured or dislocated limb to restore alignment

Traction

327

Medications that reduce reabsorption of bones, improves osteoporosis and Paget's disease Ex) fosamax

Bone reabsorption inhibitor

327

Medications that reduce reabsorption of bones, improves osteoporosis and Paget's disease Ex) fosamax

Bone reabsorption inhibitor

328

Maintains high calcium in order to maintain bone density, improves osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and rickets Ex) citracal or oystercal

Calcium supplements and vitamin D therapy

328

Maintains high calcium in order to maintain bone density, improves osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and rickets Ex) citracal or oystercal

Calcium supplements and vitamin D therapy

329

Produced by adrenal cortex and has strong anti-inflammatory properties, treats rheumatoid arthritis Ex) prednisone

Corticosteroids

329

Produced by adrenal cortex and has strong anti-inflammatory properties, treats rheumatoid arthritis Ex) prednisone

Corticosteroids

330

Provide mild pain and inflammatory relief Ex) Advil, aleve, ibuprofen

Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs

330

Provide mild pain and inflammatory relief Ex) Advil, aleve, ibuprofen

Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs

331

Pertaining to fascia

Fascial

331

Pertaining to fascia

Fascial

332

Pertaining to tendons

Tendinous

332

Pertaining to tendons

Tendinous

333

Study of movement, how it's produced, and muscles involved

Kinesiology

333

Study of movement, how it's produced, and muscles involved

Kinesiology

334

Scar tissue in the fascia surrounding a muscle making it difficult to move the muscle

Adhesion

334

Scar tissue in the fascia surrounding a muscle making it difficult to move the muscle

Adhesion

335

Without muscle tone

Atonia

335

Without muscle tone

Atonia

336

Poor muscle development

Atrophy

336

Poor muscle development

Atrophy

337

Slow movement

Bradykinesia

337

Slow movement

Bradykinesia

338

Shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia making it difficult to move the muscle

Contracture

338

Shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia making it difficult to move the muscle

Contracture

339

Painful movement

Dyskinesia

339

Painful movement

Dyskinesia

340

Abnormal muscle tone

Dystonia

340

Abnormal muscle tone

Dystonia

341

Excessive movement

Hyperkinesia

341

Excessive movement

Hyperkinesia

342

Excessive muscle tone

Hypertonia

342

Excessive muscle tone

Hypertonia

343

Increase in muscle bulk as result of use

Hypertrophy

343

Increase in muscle bulk as result of use

Hypertrophy

344

Insufficient movement

Hypokinesia

344

Insufficient movement

Hypokinesia

345

Insufficient muscle tone

Hypotonia

346

Severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles (inadequate blood supply)

Intermittent claudication

347

Muscle pain

Myalgia

348

Muscle weakness

Myasthenia

348

Muscle weakness

Myasthenia

349

Muscle tone

Myotonia

349

Muscle tone

Myotonia

350

Sudden involuntary muscle contraction

Spasm

350

Sudden involuntary muscle contraction

Spasm

351

Tendon pain

Tenodynia

352

Inflammation of fascia

Fascilitis

353

Widespread pain in muscles

Fibromyalgia

354

Inflammation of muscle attachment to lateral epicondyle of the elbow Aka tennis elbow

Lateral epicondylitis

355

Progressive muscle degeneration

Muscular dystrophy

355

Progressive muscle degeneration

Muscular dystrophy

356

General term for muscle disease

Myopathy

356

General term for muscle disease

Myopathy

357

Tearing a muscle

Myorrhexis

357

Tearing a muscle

Myorrhexis

358

Inflammation of two or more muscles

Polymyositis

358

Inflammation of two or more muscles

Polymyositis

359

Muscle tissue is replaced with fatty tissue, making the muscles falsely appear strong Aka Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy

359

Muscle tissue is replaced with fatty tissue, making the muscles falsely appear strong Aka Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy

360

Severe neck spasms pulling the head to the side Aka crick in the neck

Torticollis

360

Severe neck spasms pulling the head to the side Aka crick in the neck

Torticollis

361

Pain of finger flexor tendons and median nerves in the wrist caused by repetitive motion

Carpal tunnel syndrome

361

Pain of finger flexor tendons and median nerves in the wrist caused by repetitive motion

Carpal tunnel syndrome

362

Cyst on a tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle

Ganglion cyst

362

Cyst on a tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle

Ganglion cyst

363

Injury to the joint capsule of the shoulder which is reinforced by tendons from several shoulder muscles

Rotator cuff injury

363

Injury to the joint capsule of the shoulder which is reinforced by tendons from several shoulder muscles

Rotator cuff injury

364

Damage to muscles due to over stretching

Strain

364

Damage to muscles due to over stretching

Strain

365

Inflammation of a tendon

Tendinitis

365

Inflammation of a tendon

Tendinitis

366

Enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle that is elevated in disorders such as heart attack, MD, and other skeletal muscle disorders

Creatine phosphokinase

366

Enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle that is elevated in disorders such as heart attack, MD, and other skeletal muscle disorders

Creatine phosphokinase

367

Striking muscle tendon with a reflection hammer to see if the muscle contracts

Deep tendon reflex

367

Striking muscle tendon with a reflection hammer to see if the muscle contracts

Deep tendon reflex

368

Record of muscle contractions via electrical stimulation

Electromyogram

369

Record of muscle contractions via electrical stimulation

Electromyogram

370

Recording the strength of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation

Electromyography

371

Removing muscle tissue for examination

Muscle biopsy

372

Cutting the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by CTS

Carpal tunnel release

372

Recording the strength of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation

Electromyography

373

Procedure that cuts into the fascia

Fasciotomy

374

Surgical repair of a muscle

Myoplasty

374

Surgical repair of a muscle

Myoplasty

375

Suturing a muscle

Myorrhaphy

375

Suturing a muscle

Myorrhaphy

376

Surgical repair of a tendon

Tendoplasty

376

Surgical repair of a tendon

Tendoplasty

377

Procedure that cuts into a tendon

Tendotomy

377

Procedure that cuts into a tendon

Tendotomy

378

Anchoring the tendons that move a joint

Tenodesis

378

Anchoring the tendons that move a joint

Tenodesis

379

Surgical repair of tendon

Tenoplasty

379

Surgical repair of tendon

Tenoplasty

380

Suturing a tendon

Tenorrhaphy

381

Reduce muscle spasms Ex) flexeril

Skeletal muscle relaxants

382

Movement away from the body

Abduction

383

Movement toward the body

Adduction

383

Suturing a tendon

Tenorrhaphy

384

Bending

Flexion

385

Straightening

Extension

385

Straightening

Extension

386

Backward bending of hand or foot

Dorsiflexion

386

Backward bending of hand or foot

Dorsiflexion

387

Bending the sole of the foot and pointing toes down

Plantar flexion

387

Bending the sole of the foot and pointing toes down

Plantar flexion

388

Turning outward

Eversion

389

Turning outward

Eversion

390

Turning inward

Inversion

391

Turning inward

Inversion

392

Turn downward or backward with hand or foot

Pronation

393

Turn downward or backward with hand or foot

Pronation

394

Turn hand or foot upward

Supination

395

Raise a body part

Elevation

395

Raise a body part

Elevation

396

Downward movement

Depression

396

Downward movement

Depression

397

Circular movement from a central point

Circumduction

398

Moving thumb away from palm

Opposition

398

Moving thumb away from palm

Opposition

399

Moving around a central axis

Rotation

399

Moving around a central axis

Rotation

400

Section where two bones meet

Joint

400

Section where two bones meet

Joint

401

Another name for bone

Osseous tissue

401

Another name for bone

Osseous tissue

402

Gradual process beginning before birth in which bones are formed

Ossification

403

Flexible tissue that makes up the entire fetal skeleton and is found in ears, nose, etc in adults

Cartilage

403

Flexible tissue that makes up the entire fetal skeleton and is found in ears, nose, etc in adults

Cartilage

404

Immature bone cells that replace cartilage in the fetal skeleton

Osteoblasts

404

Immature bone cells that replace cartilage in the fetal skeleton

Osteoblasts

405

Mature osteoblasts in adult bones

Osteocytes

405

Mature osteoblasts in adult bones

Osteocytes

406

Longer than they are wide, most bones in the human body Ex) femur and humerus

Long bones

406

Longer than they are wide, most bones in the human body Ex) femur and humerus

Long bones

407

Roughly as long as they are wide Ex) carpals and tarsals

Short bones

407

Roughly as long as they are wide Ex) carpals and tarsals

Short bones

408

Their shape is irregular Ex) vertebrae

Irregular bones

408

Their shape is irregular Ex) vertebrae

Irregular bones

409

Usually plate shaped. Ex) sternum, scapulae, and pelvis

Flat bones

410

Usually plate shaped. Ex) sternum, scapulae, and pelvis

Flat bones

411

Central portion of long bones

Diaphysis

411

Central portion of long bones

Diaphysis

412

The ends of a long bone

Epiphysis

413

Cartilage that covers the epiphysis to prevent bone from rubbing bone

Articulate cartilage

413

Cartilage that covers the epiphysis to prevent bone from rubbing bone

Articulate cartilage

414

Thin connective tissue membrane that covers the remaining surface of each bone

Periosteum

415

Thin connective tissue membrane that covers the remaining surface of each bone

Periosteum

416

Hard exterior surface of bone, also called cortical bone

Compact bone

416

Hard exterior surface of bone, also called cortical bone

Compact bone

417

Found inside the bone, also called cancellous bone

Spongy bone

417

Found inside the bone, also called cancellous bone

Spongy bone

418

Found in the spaces of spongy bone, manufactures most of the blood cells

Red bone marrow

419

Found in the spaces of spongy bone, manufactures most of the blood cells

Red bone marrow

420

Open cavity in the center of the diaphysis

Medullary cavity

420

Open cavity in the center of the diaphysis

Medullary cavity

421

Found in the medullary cavity, starts out in life as red bone marrow but gradually converts to yellow. Made mainly of fat cells

Yellow bone marrow

421

Found in the medullary cavity, starts out in life as red bone marrow but gradually converts to yellow. Made mainly of fat cells

Yellow bone marrow

422

General term for any bony projection

Process

422

General term for any bony projection

Process

423

Large, smooth ball shaped end on a long bone May be separated from the body of the bone by a narrow area called the neck

Head

423

Large, smooth ball shaped end on a long bone May be separated from the body of the bone by a narrow area called the neck

Head

424

Smooth, rounded portion at the opposite end of the bone than the head

Condyle

424

Smooth, rounded portion at the opposite end of the bone than the head

Condyle

425

Small projection on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

426

Large rough process for attachment of a muscle Greater trochanter, trochanteric line, lesser trochanter

Trochanter

427

Small, rough process that provides attachment for tendons and muscles

Tubercle

428

Large, rough process that provides attachment for tendons and muscles

Tuberosity

429

Hollow cavity within a bone

Sinus

429

Hollow cavity within a bone

Sinus

430

Smooth, round opening fir nerves and blood vessels

Foramen

430

Smooth, round opening fir nerves and blood vessels

Foramen

431

Shallow cavity or depression on surface of bone

Fossa

431

Shallow cavity or depression on surface of bone

Fossa

432

Slit-type opening

Fissure

432

Slit-type opening

Fissure

433

Head, neck, spine, chest, and trunk

Axial skeleton

433

Head, neck, spine, chest, and trunk

Axial skeleton

434

Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper extremities, and lower extremities

Appendicular skeleton

434

Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper extremities, and lower extremities

Appendicular skeleton

435

One frontal, two parietal, two temporal, two ethmoid, two sphenoid, and one occipital

Cranium bones

435

One frontal, two parietal, two temporal, two ethmoid, two sphenoid, and one occipital

Cranium bones

436

Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, lacrimal

Facial bones

436

Mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, lacrimal

Facial bones

437

U-shaped bone in the neck between the mandible and larynx, attachment for swallowing and speech muscles

Hyoid bone

437

U-shaped bone in the neck between the mandible and larynx, attachment for swallowing and speech muscles

Hyoid bone

438

Vertebral column, sternum, rib cage

Trunk of body

438

Vertebral column, sternum, rib cage

Trunk of body

439

Between each vertebra from cervical through lumbar

Intervertebral disc

439

Between each vertebra from cervical through lumbar

Intervertebral disc

440

Lowest two of the twelve pairs of ribs, they are only attached to the vertebral column while the rest attach to the vertebral column and the sternum

Floating ribs

440

Lowest two of the twelve pairs of ribs, they are only attached to the vertebral column while the rest attach to the vertebral column and the sternum

Floating ribs

441

Clavicle and scapula bones, attaches upper extremities to the axial skeleton

Pectoral girdle

441

Clavicle and scapula bones, attaches upper extremities to the axial skeleton

Pectoral girdle

442

Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges

Bones of upper extremities

443

Aka os coxae or innominate bone Contains ilium(plate pelvic bone), ischium(loop pelvic bone), and pubis(above the loop)

Pelvic girdle

444

Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

Bones of the lower extremities

445

When two or more bones meet, a joint

Articulation

446

Most joints in the body, freely moving Enclosed by a joint capsule

Synovial joints

446

Most joints in the body, freely moving Enclosed by a joint capsule

Synovial joints

447

Lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint Ex) ball and socket joint at the shoulder and hip

Joint capsule

447

Lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint Ex) ball and socket joint at the shoulder and hip

Joint capsule

448

Saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane Commonly between bones and ligaments or tendons, they reduce friction

Bursa

448

Saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane Commonly between bones and ligaments or tendons, they reduce friction

Bursa

449

Allow almost no movement, the ends of the bones are joined by fibrous tissue Ex) sutures of the skull

Fibrous joints

449

Allow almost no movement, the ends of the bones are joined by fibrous tissue Ex) sutures of the skull

Fibrous joints

450

Slight movement but hold bones firmly in place by cartilage Ex) pubic symphysis, where left and right pubic bonds meet in the front of the pubis

Cartilaginous joints

450

Slight movement but hold bones firmly in place by cartilage Ex) pubic symphysis, where left and right pubic bonds meet in the front of the pubis

Cartilaginous joints

451

Bundles of parallel muscle fibers that produce movement when contracted

Muscles

452

Striated, either directly or indirectly attached to a bone

Skeletal muscle

453

Layers of connective tissue that surround skeletal muscle

Fascia

454

Tapered area at the end of the fascia that anchors into the periosteum of the bone

Tendon

454

Tapered area at the end of the fascia that anchors into the periosteum of the bone

Tendon

455

Stimulate skeletal muscles

Motor neurons

455

Stimulate skeletal muscles

Motor neurons

456

Point where the motor nerve and skeletal muscle fiber come into contact

Myoneural junction

456

Point where the motor nerve and skeletal muscle fiber come into contact

Myoneural junction

457

Sometimes referred to as visceral muscle because it is usually found in internal organs and blood vessels

Smooth muscle

458

Sometimes referred to as visceral muscle because it is usually found in internal organs and blood vessels

Smooth muscle

459

Also called myocardium, it makes up the wall of the heart Striated, less dense striations than skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

460

Also called myocardium, it makes up the wall of the heart Striated, less dense striations than skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

461

Straight abdominal muscle

Rectus abdominis

461

Straight abdominal muscle

Rectus abdominis

462

Named for two origins, sternum and clavicle, and single insertion (mastoid process)

Sternocleidomastoid

462

Named for two origins, sternum and clavicle, and single insertion (mastoid process)

Sternocleidomastoid

463

Rump area, large

Gluteus Maximus

463

Rump area, large

Gluteus Maximus

464

Produce flexion and extension at the wrist

Flexor carpi and extensor carpi

464

Produce flexion and extension at the wrist

Flexor carpi and extensor carpi

465

Abdominal muscle whose fibers run at an oblique angle

External oblique muscle

465

Abdominal muscle whose fibers run at an oblique angle

External oblique muscle

466

Muscle in upper arm that has two (bi) connecting points

Biceps

466

Muscle in upper arm that has two (bi) connecting points

Biceps

467

Less moving bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle starts

Origin

467

Less moving bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle starts

Origin

468

More movable bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle ends

Insertion

468

More movable bone of the joint, considered to be where the muscle ends

Insertion

469

Type of movement a muscle produces

Action

469

Type of movement a muscle produces

Action

470

Pair of muscles around a joint that produce opposite actions

Antagonistic pairs

470

Pair of muscles around a joint that produce opposite actions

Antagonistic pairs