MT Ch. 5-cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MT Ch. 5-cardiovascular Deck (266):
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Heart

Pumps blood through blood vessels, made of cardiac muscle fibers Has four chambers and averages 60-100 beats a minute

1

Artery

Carries blood away from the heart

2

Vein

Carries blood toward the heart, thinner-walled than arteries

3

Capillary

Exchange site between blood and tissues, very thin walled to allow diffusion of oxygen and nutrients

4

Cardiovascular system

Aka circulatory system Maintains distribution of blood throughout the body and collects waste from cells Composed of heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins

5

Pulmonary circulation

Between heart and lungs; transports deoxygenated blood to lungs to get oxygen, then back to the heart

6

Systemic circulation

Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to tissues and cells, then back to the heart

7

Where waste is disposed of

Lungs, liver, and kidneys

8

Apex

Tip of heart at lower edge

9

Endocardium

Inner layer of the heart, lining the chambers Serves to reduce friction as blood passes through

10

Myocardium

Muscular middle layer of heart Provides pressure needed to pump blood

11

Epicardium

Outer layer of the heart, also called the visceral pericardium

12

Atria

Two upper chambers of the heart, receive blood, divided by the interatrial septum

13

Ventricles

Two lower chambers of the heart, pumping chambers, divided by the interventricular septum

14

Heart valves

Restraining gates to control the direction of blood flow, situated at entrances and exits to ventricles

15

Tricuspid valve

Atrioventricular valve meaning it controls opening between right atrium and right ventricle, has three cusps

16

Pulmonary valve

Semilunar valve, meaning it looks like a half moon. Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

17

Mitral valve

Bicuspid valve, has two cusps. Controls opening between left atrium and left ventricle

18

Aortic valve

Semilunar valve located between left ventricle and aorta

19

Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava

Two large veins that deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium through

20

Pulmonary artery

Artery that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs

21

Pulmonary veins

Four veins that oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through

22

Aorta

Largest artery in the body that carries blood all over

23

Diastole

Period of time a heart chamber is relaxed

24

Systole

When a heart chamber is contracted

25

Blood flow through the heart

1. Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava 2. Flows through tricuspid valve into right ventricle 3. RV contracts and pumps blood through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxygenation 4. Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through the four pulmonary veins 5. Blood flows through the bicuspid(mitral) valve into the left ventricle 6. LV contracts and pumps blood through aortic valve into the aorta

26

Autonomic nervous system

Regulates automatic processes of body, controls heartbeat

27

Flow of Electricity through the heart

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node is stimulated, sending impulses through the atria, causing them to contract 2. Atrioventricular node is stimulated, transfers to atrioventricular bundle 3. Travels down bundle branches in the interventricular septum 4. Purkinje fibers in ventricular myocardium are stimulated, causing the ventricles to contract

28

Lumen

Channel within blood vessels that blood flows through

29

Arterioles

Smallest arteries that carry blood to the capillaries

30

Coronary arteries

Branch from the aorta, provide blood to the myocardium. Branch into smaller arteries as they travel through the body

31

Capillary bed

Network of tiny blood vessels that make up capillaries Arterial blood flows in, venous blood flows out

32

Venules

Smallest veins, blood leaving capillaries first enters these, then merges into larger veins

33

Blood pressure

Measurement of force exerted by blood against the wall of a blood vessel-highest reading over the lowest reading

34

Systolic pressure

Blood pressure when the ventricles are in systole, or contraction-highest blood pressure reading

35

Pulse at wrist or throat

Surge of blood caused by heart contraction

36

Diastolic pressure

Blood pressure when ventricles are in diastole, or resting-lowest blood pressure reading

37

Cardiology

Diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the cardiovascular system

38

Cardiovascular technician

Professional trained to perform a variety of diagnostic and treatment procedures including electrocardiography, echocardiography, and exercise stress tests

39

Angilitis

Inflammation of a vessel

40

Angiospasm

Muscle contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of a vessel, narrowing it

41

Angiostenosis

Narrowing of a vessel

42

Bradycardia

Slow heart rate, usually less than 60 beats/min

43

Embolus

Obstruction of blood vessel by a blood clot broken off of a thrombus

44

Infarct

Area of tissue within an organ that undergoes necrosis following loss of blood supply

45

Ischemia

Deficiency of blood supply due to obstruction of circulation

46

Murmur

An abnormal sound arising from blood flowing through the heart that May or may not indicate a heart abnormality

47

Orthostatic hypotension

Sudden drop in blood pressure when standing up straight

48

Palpitations

Pounding, racing, heartbeats

49

Plaque

Yellow, fatty deposit of lipids in an artery, indication of atherosclerosis

50

Regurgitation

Backflow of blood through a valve

51

Tachycardia

Fast heart rate

52

Thrombus

Blood clot within a vessel

53

Angina pectoris

Severe pain with a sensation of constriction around the heart caused by deficiency of oxygen

54

Arrhythmia

Irregularity in heartbeat

55

Cardiac arrest

Complete stopping of heart activity

56

Cardiomegaly

Enlarged heart

57

Cardiomyopathy

General term for disease of myocardium

58

Congenital septal defect

A hole in the septum between two heart chambers, present at birth Atrial septal defect and ventrical septal defect

59

Congestive heart failure

Reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart because the left ventricle myocardium has become too weak to pump blood

60

Coronary artery disease

Insufficient blood supply to the heart because one or more coronary arteries are obstructed

61

Endocarditis

Inflammation of the lining membranes of the heart

62

Fibrillation

Arrhythmia characterized by abnormal quivering of contraction of heart fibers, can cause cardiac arrest and death

63

Flutter

Arrhythmia in which atria beat too rapidly

64

Heart valve prolapse

Cusps of valves are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing backflow

65

Heart valve stenosis

Cusps are too stiff and can't fully open or shut, making it hard for blood to flow through and allowing backflow

66

Myocardial infarction

Partial or complete occlusion or closing of one or more of the coronary arteries Aka heart attack

67

Myocarditis

Inflammation of muscle layer of the heart wall

68

Pericarditis

Inflammation or pericardial sac

69

Tetralogy of Fallot

Combination of pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, improper placement of the aorta, and hypertrophy of right ventricle

70

Valvulitis

Inflammation of heart valve

71

Aneurysm

Widening of the artery, common in abdominal aorta and cerebral arteries in brain

72

Arteriorrhexis

Ruptured artery

73

Arteriosclerosis

Hardening of arterial walls

74

Atheroma

Deposit of fatty substance in the wall of an artery that narrows the lumen Aka plaque

75

Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the fatty substance in the arteries

76

Coarctation of the aorta

Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta

77

Congenital

Present from birth

78

Hemorrhoid

Varicose veins in anal region

79

Hypertension

Blood pressure is above the normal range

80

Hypotension

Decrease in blood pressure

81

Patent ductus arteriosis

Connection between pulmonary artery and aorta fails to close at birth

82

Peripheral vascular disease

Any condition affecting blood vessels outside the heart

83

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

84

Polyarteritis

Inflammation of several arteries

85

Raynaud's phenomenon

Periodic ischemic attacks affecting the extremities, causing them to become cyanotic and very painful

86

Thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of a vein resulting in formation of blood clots

87

Varicose veins

Swollen and distended veins, usually in the legs

88

Auscultation

Listening to sounds within body by using a stethoscope

89

Sphygmomanometer

Instrument for measuring blood pressure Aka blood pressure cuff

90

Stethoscope

Instrument for listening to body sounds (auscultation)

91

Cardiac enzymes

Blood test to determine the level of enzymes in the blood, too many may result in heart damage

92

Serum lipoprotein level

Blood test to measure amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, indicator of atherosclerosis

93

Angiogram

X-ray record of a vessel

94

Angiography

Process of taking an xray of a blood vessel Aortic angiography, angiocardiography, and cerebral angiography

95

Cardiac scan

Injecting radioactive thallium in the veins and scanning to determine heart damage

96

Doppler ultrasonography

Measurement of sound save echoes as they bounce off tissues and organs to produce an image

97

Echocardiography

Using ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures

98

Catheter

Flexible tube inserted into the body that moves fluids in or out of the body

99

Cardiac catheterization

Passing a thin tube catheter through a blood vessel leading to the heart

100

Electrocardiogram

Record of the hearts electrical activity from electrocardiography

101

Electrocardiography

Process of recording electrical activity of the heart

102

Holter monitor

Portable ECG monitor worn by a patient to assess the heart and pulse activity as the person goes through daily living

103

Stress testing

Evaluates cardiovascular fitness by using a treadmill or bicycle Aka exercise test or treadmill test

104

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Restores cardiac output and air to lungs for someone in cardiac arrest by using chest compressions and artificial respiration

105

Defibrillation

Giving electric shock to convert irregular heartbeats Automated external defibrillators (AED) detect the arrhythmias ad deliver appropriate shock, designed for non-medical personnel

106

Extracorporeal circulation

Routing blood to a heart-lung machine to be oxygenated and pumped back to the body during open heart surgery

107

Implantable cardioverterdefibrillator

Delivers electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm

108

Pacemaker implantation

Substitutes for natural pacemaker(sinoatrial node) of the heart, controls heartbeats

109

Thrombolytic therapy

Drugs are injected into a blood vessel to dissolve clots

110

Aneurysmectomy

Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm

111

Arterial anastomosis

Surgically joining two arteries

112

Anther ectomy

Surgical procedure to remove an atheroma from an artery

113

Coronary artery bypass graft

Blood vessel from another location is grafted to route blood around a blocked coronary artery

114

Embolectomy

Removal of embolus(clot) from blood vessel

115

Endarterectomy

Removal of damaged inner lining of an artery

116

Heart transplantation

Replacing the entire heart

117

Intracoronary artery stent

Placing a stent in a coronary artery to treat coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis Basically keeps the artery from being blocked

118

Ligation and stripping

Treats varicose veins by tying off (ligation) and removing (stripping) the vein

119

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

Insertion of a balloon catheter into a coronary artery and inflating it to dilate the artery

120

Stent

Stainless steel tube placed in a blood vessel to widen the lumen

121

Valve replacement

Removal and replacement of a heart valve with an artificial valve

122

Valvoplasty

Surgical repair of a heart valve

123

ACE inhibitor drugs

Produce vasodilation and decrease bold pressure Ex) capoten

124

Antiarrhythmic

Reduces or prevents cardiac arrhythmias Ex) convert

125

Anticoagulent

Prevents blood clot formation Ex) heparin

126

Antilipidemic

Reduces amounts of lipids in bloodstream Ex) Lipitor

127

Antiplatelet agents

Inhibits ability of platelets to clump together as part of a blood clot Ex) plavix, aspirin

128

Beta-blocker drugs

Lowers heart rate Ex) inderal

129

Calcium channel blocker drugs

Causes heart to beat less forcefully and less often Ex) procardia

130

Cardiotonic

Increases force of cardiac muscle contractions Ex) lanoxin

131

Diuretic

Increases urine production resulting in lower blood pressure Ex) lasix

132

Thrombolytic

Dissolves blood clots Ex) activase

133

Vasoconstrictor

Contracts blood vessels and raises blood pressure Ex) aramine

134

Vasodilator

Dilates blood vessel and lowers blood pressure Ex) nitroglycerin

135

Pumps blood through blood vessels, made of cardiac muscle fibers Has four chambers and averages 60-100 beats a minute

Heart

136

Carries blood away from the heart

Artery

137

Carries blood toward the heart, thinner-walled than arteries

Vein

138

Exchange site between blood and tissues, very thin walled to allow diffusion of oxygen and nutrients

Capillary

139

Aka circulatory system Maintains distribution of blood throughout the body and collects waste from cells Composed of heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins

Cardiovascular system

140

Between heart and lungs; transports deoxygenated blood to lungs to get oxygen, then back to the heart

Pulmonary circulation

141

Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to tissues and cells, then back to the heart

Systemic circulation

142

Tip of heart at lower edge

Apex

143

Inner layer of the heart, lining the chambers Serves to reduce friction as blood passes through

Endocardium

144

Muscular middle layer of heart Provides pressure needed to pump blood

Myocardium

145

Outer layer of the heart, also called the visceral pericardium

Epicardium

146

Two upper chambers of the heart, receive blood, divided by the interatrial septum

Atria

147

Two lower chambers of the heart, pumping chambers, divided by the interventricular septum

Ventricles

148

Restraining gates to control the direction of blood flow, situated at entrances and exits to ventricles

Heart valves

149

Atrioventricular valve meaning it controls opening between right atrium and right ventricle, has three cusps

Tricuspid valve

150

Semilunar valve, meaning it looks like a half moon. Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

Pulmonary valve

151

Bicuspid valve, has two cusps. Controls opening between left atrium and left ventricle

Mitral valve

152

Semilunar valve located between left ventricle and aorta

Aortic valve

153

Two large veins that deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium through

Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava

154

Artery that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs

Pulmonary artery

155

Four veins that oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through

Pulmonary veins

156

Largest artery in the body that carries blood all over

Aorta

157

Period of time a heart chamber is relaxed

Diastole

158

When a heart chamber is contracted

Systole

159

Regulates automatic processes of body, controls heartbeat

Autonomic nervous system

160

Channel within blood vessels that blood flows through

Lumen

161

Smallest arteries that carry blood to the capillaries

Arterioles

162

Branch from the aorta, provide blood to the myocardium. Branch into smaller arteries as they travel through the body

Coronary arteries

163

Network of tiny blood vessels that make up capillaries Arterial blood flows in, venous blood flows out

Capillary bed

164

Smallest veins, blood leaving capillaries first enters these, then merges into larger veins

Venules

165

Measurement of force exerted by blood against the wall of a blood vessel-highest reading over the lowest reading

Blood pressure

166

Blood pressure when the ventricles are in systole, or contraction-highest blood pressure reading

Systolic pressure

167

Blood pressure when ventricles are in diastole, or resting-lowest blood pressure reading

Diastolic pressure

168

Diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the cardiovascular system

Cardiology

169

Professional trained to perform a variety of diagnostic and treatment procedures including electrocardiography, echocardiography, and exercise stress tests

Cardiovascular technician

170

Inflammation of a vessel

Angilitis

171

Muscle contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of a vessel, narrowing it

Angiospasm

172

Narrowing of a vessel

Angiostenosis

173

Slow heart rate, usually less than 60 beats/min

Bradycardia

174

Obstruction of blood vessel by a blood clot broken off of a thrombus

Embolus

175

Area of tissue within an organ that undergoes necrosis following loss of blood supply

Infarct

176

Deficiency of blood supply due to obstruction of circulation

Ischemia

177

An abnormal sound arising from blood flowing through the heart that May or may not indicate a heart abnormality

Murmur

178

Sudden drop in blood pressure when standing up straight

Orthostatic hypotension

179

Pounding, racing, heartbeats

Palpitations

180

Yellow, fatty deposit of lipids in an artery, indication of atherosclerosis

Plaque

181

Backflow of blood through a valve

Regurgitation

182

Fast heart rate

Tachycardia

183

Blood clot within a vessel

Thrombus

184

Severe pain with a sensation of constriction around the heart caused by deficiency of oxygen

Angina pectoris

185

Irregularity in heartbeat

Arrhythmia

186

Complete stopping of heart activity

Cardiac arrest

187

Enlarged heart

Cardiomegaly

188

General term for disease of myocardium

Cardiomyopathy

189

A hole in the septum between two heart chambers, present at birth Atrial septal defect and ventrical septal defect

Congenital septal defect

190

Reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart because the left ventricle myocardium has become too weak to pump blood

Congestive heart failure

191

Insufficient blood supply to the heart because one or more coronary arteries are obstructed

Coronary artery disease

192

Inflammation of the lining membranes of the heart

Endocarditis

193

Arrhythmia characterized by abnormal quivering of contraction of heart fibers, can cause cardiac arrest and death

Fibrillation

194

Arrhythmia in which atria beat too rapidly

Flutter

195

Cusps of valves are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing backflow

Heart valve prolapse

196

Cusps are too stiff and can't fully open or shut, making it hard for blood to flow through and allowing backflow

Heart valve stenosis

197

Partial or complete occlusion or closing of one or more of the coronary arteries Aka heart attack

Myocardial infarction

198

Inflammation of muscle layer of the heart wall

Myocarditis

199

Inflammation or pericardial sac

Pericarditis

200

Combination of pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, improper placement of the aorta, and hypertrophy of right ventricle

Tetralogy of Fallot

201

Inflammation of heart valve

Valvulitis

202

Widening of the artery, common in abdominal aorta and cerebral arteries in brain

Aneurysm

203

Ruptured artery

Arteriorrhexis

204

Hardening of arterial walls

Arteriosclerosis

205

Deposit of fatty substance in the wall of an artery that narrows the lumen Aka plaque

Atheroma

206

Hardening of the fatty substance in the arteries

Atherosclerosis

207

Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta

208

Present from birth

Congenital

209

Varicose veins in anal region

Hemorrhoid

210

Blood pressure is above the normal range

Hypertension

211

Decrease in blood pressure

Hypotension

212

Connection between pulmonary artery and aorta fails to close at birth

Patent ductus arteriosis

213

Any condition affecting blood vessels outside the heart

Peripheral vascular disease

214

Inflammation of a vein

Phlebitis

215

Inflammation of several arteries

Polyarteritis

216

Periodic ischemic attacks affecting the extremities, causing them to become cyanotic and very painful

Raynaud's phenomenon

217

Inflammation of a vein resulting in formation of blood clots

Thrombophlebitis

218

Swollen and distended veins, usually in the legs

Varicose veins

219

Listening to sounds within body by using a stethoscope

Auscultation

220

Instrument for measuring blood pressure Aka blood pressure cuff

Sphygmomanometer

221

Instrument for listening to body sounds (auscultation)

Stethoscope

222

Blood test to determine the level of enzymes in the blood, too many may result in heart damage

Cardiac enzymes

223

Blood test to measure amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, indicator of atherosclerosis

Serum lipoprotein level

224

X-ray record of a vessel

Angiogram

225

Process of taking an xray of a blood vessel Aortic angiography, angiocardiography, and cerebral angiography

Angiography

226

Injecting radioactive thallium in the veins and scanning to determine heart damage

Cardiac scan

227

Measurement of sound save echoes as they bounce off tissues and organs to produce an image

Doppler ultrasonography

228

Using ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures

Echocardiography

229

Flexible tube inserted into the body that moves fluids in or out of the body

Catheter

230

Passing a thin tube catheter through a blood vessel leading to the heart

Cardiac catheterization

231

Record of the hearts electrical activity from electrocardiography

Electrocardiogram

232

Process of recording electrical activity of the heart

Electrocardiography

233

Portable ECG monitor worn by a patient to assess the heart and pulse activity as the person goes through daily living

Holter monitor

234

Evaluates cardiovascular fitness by using a treadmill or bicycle Aka exercise test or treadmill test

Stress testing

235

Restores cardiac output and air to lungs for someone in cardiac arrest by using chest compressions and artificial respiration

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

236

Giving electric shock to convert irregular heartbeats Automated external defibrillators (AED) detect the arrhythmias ad deliver appropriate shock, designed for non-medical personnel

Defibrillation

237

Routing blood to a heart-lung machine to be oxygenated and pumped back to the body during open heart surgery

Extracorporeal circulation

238

Delivers electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm

Implantable cardioverterdefibrillator

239

Substitutes for natural pacemaker(sinoatrial node) of the heart, controls heartbeats

Pacemaker implantation

240

Drugs are injected into a blood vessel to dissolve clots

Thrombolytic therapy

241

Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm

Aneurysmectomy

242

Surgically joining two arteries

Arterial anastomosis

243

Surgical procedure to remove an atheroma from an artery

Anther ectomy

244

Blood vessel from another location is grafted to route blood around a blocked coronary artery

Coronary artery bypass graft

245

Removal of embolus(clot) from blood vessel

Embolectomy

246

Removal of damaged inner lining of an artery

Endarterectomy

247

Replacing the entire heart

Heart transplantation

248

Placing a stent in a coronary artery to treat coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis Basically keeps the artery from being blocked

Intracoronary artery stent

249

Treats varicose veins by tying off (ligation) and removing (stripping) the vein

Ligation and stripping

250

Insertion of a balloon catheter into a coronary artery and inflating it to dilate the artery

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

251

Stainless steel tube placed in a blood vessel to widen the lumen

Stent

252

Removal and replacement of a heart valve with an artificial valve

Valve replacement

253

Surgical repair of a heart valve

Valvoplasty

254

Produce vasodilation and decrease bold pressure Ex) capoten

ACE inhibitor drugs

255

Reduces or prevents cardiac arrhythmias Ex) convert

Antiarrhythmic

256

Prevents blood clot formation Ex) heparin

Anticoagulent

257

Reduces amounts of lipids in bloodstream Ex) Lipitor

Antilipidemic

258

Inhibits ability of platelets to clump together as part of a blood clot Ex) plavix, aspirin

Antiplatelet agents

259

Lowers heart rate Ex) inderal

Beta-blocker drugs

260

Causes heart to beat less forcefully and less often Ex) procardia

Calcium channel blocker drugs

261

Increases force of cardiac muscle contractions Ex) lanoxin

Cardiotonic

262

Increases urine production resulting in lower blood pressure Ex) lasix

Diuretic

263

Dissolves blood clots Ex) activase

Thrombolytic

264

Contracts blood vessels and raises blood pressure Ex) aramine

Vasoconstrictor

265

Dilates blood vessel and lowers blood pressure Ex) nitroglycerin

Vasodilator