MT Ch. 5-cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MT Ch. 5-cardiovascular Deck (266)
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Heart

Pumps blood through blood vessels, made of cardiac muscle fibers Has four chambers and averages 60-100 beats a minute

1

Artery

Carries blood away from the heart

2

Vein

Carries blood toward the heart, thinner-walled than arteries

3

Capillary

Exchange site between blood and tissues, very thin walled to allow diffusion of oxygen and nutrients

4

Cardiovascular system

Aka circulatory system Maintains distribution of blood throughout the body and collects waste from cells Composed of heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins

5

Pulmonary circulation

Between heart and lungs; transports deoxygenated blood to lungs to get oxygen, then back to the heart

6

Systemic circulation

Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to tissues and cells, then back to the heart

7

Where waste is disposed of

Lungs, liver, and kidneys

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Apex

Tip of heart at lower edge

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Endocardium

Inner layer of the heart, lining the chambers Serves to reduce friction as blood passes through

10

Myocardium

Muscular middle layer of heart Provides pressure needed to pump blood

11

Epicardium

Outer layer of the heart, also called the visceral pericardium

12

Atria

Two upper chambers of the heart, receive blood, divided by the interatrial septum

13

Ventricles

Two lower chambers of the heart, pumping chambers, divided by the interventricular septum

14

Heart valves

Restraining gates to control the direction of blood flow, situated at entrances and exits to ventricles

15

Tricuspid valve

Atrioventricular valve meaning it controls opening between right atrium and right ventricle, has three cusps

16

Pulmonary valve

Semilunar valve, meaning it looks like a half moon. Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

17

Mitral valve

Bicuspid valve, has two cusps. Controls opening between left atrium and left ventricle

18

Aortic valve

Semilunar valve located between left ventricle and aorta

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Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava

Two large veins that deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium through

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Pulmonary artery

Artery that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs

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Pulmonary veins

Four veins that oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through

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Aorta

Largest artery in the body that carries blood all over

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Diastole

Period of time a heart chamber is relaxed

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Systole

When a heart chamber is contracted

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Blood flow through the heart

1. Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava 2. Flows through tricuspid valve into right ventricle 3. RV contracts and pumps blood through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxygenation 4. Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through the four pulmonary veins 5. Blood flows through the bicuspid(mitral) valve into the left ventricle 6. LV contracts and pumps blood through aortic valve into the aorta

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Autonomic nervous system

Regulates automatic processes of body, controls heartbeat

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Flow of Electricity through the heart

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node is stimulated, sending impulses through the atria, causing them to contract 2. Atrioventricular node is stimulated, transfers to atrioventricular bundle 3. Travels down bundle branches in the interventricular septum 4. Purkinje fibers in ventricular myocardium are stimulated, causing the ventricles to contract

28

Lumen

Channel within blood vessels that blood flows through

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Arterioles

Smallest arteries that carry blood to the capillaries