Flashcards in Ch. 11-Endocrine System Deck (113)
regulates circadian rhythms
thyroid and parathyroid glands
regulate metabolic rate and blood calcium level
regulate water and electrolyte levels
regulates blood sugar levels
regulates many other endocrine glands
development of immune system
regulate female reproductive system
regulate male reproductive system
collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase of decrease the target's activity level
maintaining a stable internal environment; endocrine system is responsible for this
release hormones into a duct that carries them outside the body
release hormones directly into the bloodstream, aka ductless glands
endocrine system consists of:
two adrenal glands, two ovaries, four parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal gland, pituitary gland, two testes, thymus gland, and thyroid gland
where are adrenal glands located?
above each kidney
two sections of the adrenal gland
adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
manufactures corticosteroids (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones)
aldosterone, regulates sodium
cortisol, regulates carbohydrates
steroid sex hormones
androgens (may be converted to estrogen in bloodstream), regulates secondary sexual characteristics
secretes epinephrine (aka adrenaline & norepinephrine) which is important during emergency situations because it allows the body to perform better
where are the ovaries located?
lower abdominopelvic cavity, female gonads
organs that produce gametes or the reproductive sex cells
what do ovaries produce?
estrogen and progesterone
responsible for female sexual characteristics and regulation of menstrual cycle
maintains a suitable uterine environment for pregnancy
where is the pancreas located?
along the lower curvature of the stomach
the pancreas is the only organ that has what?
both endocrine and exocrine functions: exocrine portion releases digestive enzymes into the duodenum, endocrine section produce insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar