Ch. 11-Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 11-Endocrine System Deck (113)
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1

pineal gland

regulates circadian rhythms

2

thyroid and parathyroid glands

regulate metabolic rate and blood calcium level

3

adrenal glands

regulate water and electrolyte levels

4

pancreas

regulates blood sugar levels

5

pituitary gland

regulates many other endocrine glands

6

thymus gland

development of immune system

7

ovaries

regulate female reproductive system

8

testes

regulate male reproductive system

9

endocrine system

collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

10

hormones

chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase of decrease the target's activity level

11

homeostasis

maintaining a stable internal environment; endocrine system is responsible for this

12

exocrine glands

release hormones into a duct that carries them outside the body

13

endocrine glands

release hormones directly into the bloodstream, aka ductless glands

14

endocrine system consists of:

two adrenal glands, two ovaries, four parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal gland, pituitary gland, two testes, thymus gland, and thyroid gland

15

where are adrenal glands located?

above each kidney

16

two sections of the adrenal gland

adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla

17

adrenal cortex

manufactures corticosteroids (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones)

18

mineralocorticoids

aldosterone, regulates sodium

19

glucocorticoids

cortisol, regulates carbohydrates

20

steroid sex hormones

androgens (may be converted to estrogen in bloodstream), regulates secondary sexual characteristics

21

adrenal medulla

secretes epinephrine (aka adrenaline & norepinephrine) which is important during emergency situations because it allows the body to perform better

22

where are the ovaries located?

lower abdominopelvic cavity, female gonads

23

gonads

organs that produce gametes or the reproductive sex cells

24

ova

female gametes

25

what do ovaries produce?

estrogen and progesterone

26

estrogen

responsible for female sexual characteristics and regulation of menstrual cycle

27

progesterone

maintains a suitable uterine environment for pregnancy

28

where is the pancreas located?

along the lower curvature of the stomach

29

the pancreas is the only organ that has what?

both endocrine and exocrine functions: exocrine portion releases digestive enzymes into the duodenum, endocrine section produce insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar

30

islets of Langerhans

the endocrine portion of the pancreas, named after Dr. Paul Langerhans, a german anatomist. produce insulin and glucagon