Ch. 11-Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Ch. 11-Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 11-Endocrine System Deck (113):
1

pineal gland

regulates circadian rhythms

2

thyroid and parathyroid glands

regulate metabolic rate and blood calcium level

3

adrenal glands

regulate water and electrolyte levels

4

pancreas

regulates blood sugar levels

5

pituitary gland

regulates many other endocrine glands

6

thymus gland

development of immune system

7

ovaries

regulate female reproductive system

8

testes

regulate male reproductive system

9

endocrine system

collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

10

hormones

chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase of decrease the target's activity level

11

homeostasis

maintaining a stable internal environment; endocrine system is responsible for this

12

exocrine glands

release hormones into a duct that carries them outside the body

13

endocrine glands

release hormones directly into the bloodstream, aka ductless glands

14

endocrine system consists of:

two adrenal glands, two ovaries, four parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal gland, pituitary gland, two testes, thymus gland, and thyroid gland

15

where are adrenal glands located?

above each kidney

16

two sections of the adrenal gland

adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla

17

adrenal cortex

manufactures corticosteroids (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones)

18

mineralocorticoids

aldosterone, regulates sodium

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glucocorticoids

cortisol, regulates carbohydrates

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steroid sex hormones

androgens (may be converted to estrogen in bloodstream), regulates secondary sexual characteristics

21

adrenal medulla

secretes epinephrine (aka adrenaline & norepinephrine) which is important during emergency situations because it allows the body to perform better

22

where are the ovaries located?

lower abdominopelvic cavity, female gonads

23

gonads

organs that produce gametes or the reproductive sex cells

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ova

female gametes

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what do ovaries produce?

estrogen and progesterone

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estrogen

responsible for female sexual characteristics and regulation of menstrual cycle

27

progesterone

maintains a suitable uterine environment for pregnancy

28

where is the pancreas located?

along the lower curvature of the stomach

29

the pancreas is the only organ that has what?

both endocrine and exocrine functions: exocrine portion releases digestive enzymes into the duodenum, endocrine section produce insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar

30

islets of Langerhans

the endocrine portion of the pancreas, named after Dr. Paul Langerhans, a german anatomist. produce insulin and glucagon

31

insulin

produced by beta cells, lowers blood sugar level

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glucagon

produced by alpha cells, raises blood sugar level

33

where are the parathyroid glands located?

anterior surface of thyroid gland

34

parathyroid hormone

secreted by parathyroid gland, regulates calcium levels in the blood

35

where is the pineal gland located?

in the thalamus region of the brain

36

melatonin

hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates circadian rhythms

37

where is the pituitary gland located?

underneath the brain

38

two sections of the pituitary gland

anterior lobe and posterior lobe, both controlled by hypothalamus

39

anterior pituitary

secretes growth hormone (somatotropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone, andrenocorticotropin hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and melanocyte stimulating hormone

40

growth hormone

(GH, aka somatotropin) promotes growth in the body

41

thyroid-stimulating hormone

(TSH) regulates function of the thyroid gland

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adrenocorticotropin hormone

(ACTH) regulates function of adrenal cortex

43

prolactin

(PRL) stimulates milk production in breasts after giving birth

44

follicle-stimulating hormone & luteinizing hormone

(FSH&LH) influence male and female reproductive organs

45

gonadotropins

follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

46

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

(MSH) stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin, darkening the skin

47

posterior pituitary

secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

48

antidiuretic hormone

(ADH) promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules

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oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery, and releases milk from mammary glands

50

where are the testes located?

scrotal sac of the male

51

what do testes produce?

sperm (male gametes) and testosterone

52

testosterone

produces male secondary sexual characteristics and regulates sperm production

53

what does the thymus gland produce?

thymosin

54

thymosin

important for proper development of the immune system and T cells

55

where is the thymus gland located?

mediastinal cavity anterior and superior to the heart

56

where is the thyroid gland located?

either side of the trachea and larynx

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what does the thyroid gland produce?

thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin

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thyroxine and triiodothyronine

(T4&T3) regulate production of energy and heat in the body to adjust metabolic rate; produce from iodine

59

calcitonin

(CT) lowers blood calcium levels

60

endocrinology

diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of endocrine glands

61

edema

body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid

62

exophthalmos

the eyeballs protrude, generally caused by overproduction of thyroid hormone

63

glycosuria

high level of sugar in urine

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gynecomastia

development of breast tissue in males

65

hirsutism

excessive amount of hair

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hypercalcemia

high levels of calcium in the blood

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hyperglycemia

high level of sugar in the blood

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hyperkalemia

high level of potassium in the blood

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hypocalcemia

low levels of calcium in the blood

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hypoglycemia

low levels of sugar in the blood

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hyponatremia

low level of sodium in the blood

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polydipsia

excessive feeling of thirst

73

Addison's disease

deficiency of adrenocortical hormones; increased skin pigmentation, generalized weakness, and weight loss

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adrenal feminization

development of female secondary sexual characteristics in a male

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adrenal virilism

development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a female

76

Cushing's syndrome

excessive levels of cortisol; weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, and osteoporosis

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pheochromocytoma

generally benign tumor of adrenal medulla; anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea

78

diabetes mellitus

chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia and glycosuria, there are two types

79

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

type 1; pancreas stops producing insulin, so patient must take daily insulin injections

80

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

type 2; pancreas produces insulin but cells fail to respond, so patients may take oral hypoglycemics but may eventually have to take insulin injections

81

insulinoma

tumor of islets of Langerhans cells, secretes excessive amounts of insulin

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peripheral neuropathy

damage to nerves in lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes

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Rechlinghausen disease

excessive production of parathyroid hormone resulting in degeneration of bones

84

tetany

nerve irritability and muscle cramps from hypocalcemia

85

acromegaly

enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities

86

diabetes insipidus

caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, may be polyuria and polydipsia

87

panhypopituitarism

deficiency in all hormones secreted by pituitary gland

88

cretinism

lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development

89

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

90

Graves' disease

overactivity of the thyroid gland, can result in goiter and exophthalmos

91

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis; results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones

92

myxedema

anemia, slow speech, swollen facial features, edematous skin, as a result of hyposecretion of thyroid gland

93

thyrotoxicosis

marked overproduction of the thyroid gland; rapid heartbeat, tremors, thyromegaly, exophthalmos, weight loss

94

blood serum test

blood test to measure level of substances in the blood

95

fasting blood sugar

blood test to measure amount of sugar in the body after a 12-hour fast

96

glucose tolerance test

determines blood sugar levels

97

protein-bound iodine test

blood test to measure concentration of thyroxine in the bloodstream

98

radioimmunoassay

blood test that uses radioactively tagged hormones to measure quantity of hormone in plasma

99

thyroid function test

blood test used to measure levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream

100

total calcium

blood test to measure total amount of calcium

101

two hour postprandial glucose tolerance test

blood test to evaluate glucose metabolism

102

thyroid echography

ultrasound examination of the thyroid

103

thyroid scan

radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland and can then be visualized

104

chemical thyroidectomy

large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells

105

glucometer

device used for a diabetic to use at home to measure blood sugar

106

hormone replacement therapy

artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders

107

antithyroid agents

medication that blocks production of thyroid hormones
ex) methimazole, tapazole, propylithiouracil

108

corticosteroids

treat anti-inflammatory diseases and adrenal cortex hyposecretion disorders
ex) prednisone, Deltasone

109

human growth hormone therapy

hormone replacement therapy with human growth hormone to stimulate skeletal growth
ex) somatropin, Genotropin, somatrem, Protropin

110

insulin

administered to replace insulin for type 1 diabetics or to treat severe type 2 diabetes
ex) human insulin, Humulin L

111

Oral hypoglycemic agents

medications taken by mouth to decrease blood sugar
ex) metformin, Glucophage, glipizide, Glucotrol

112

thyroid replacement hormone

hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypothyroidism
ex) levothyroxine, Levo-T, liothyronine, Cytomel

113

vasopressin

controls diabetes insipidus and promotes reabsorption of water in kidney tubules
ex) desmopressin acetate, Desmopressin, conivapten, Vaprisol