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Flashcards in Ch 13 Deck (125):
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The study of the mind

Psychology

1

Synonym of sensory

Afferent

2

Two categories of the nervous system

Central nervous system(CNS) and peripheral nervous system(PNS)

3

Synonym for motor

Efferent

4

Two main structures if the central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

5

Two main structures of the peripheral nervous system

Sensory(afferent) and motor(efferent)

6

What is the brain's function in the CNS

Receives and integrates data. Regulates body activities

7

What is the spinal cord's function in the CNS

Carries information to and from the brain. Provides reflexes

8

The kidneys and adrenal glands are part of which nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

9

Sensory(afferent) parts of the peripheral nervous system do what

Convey information from receptors to CNS

10

Motor(efferent) parts of the peripheral nervous system do what

Conveys information from the CNS to muscles and glands

11

Part of the nervous system that ate controlled consciously

Somatic nervous system

12

Part of the nervous system that controls involuntary body functions

Autonomic nervous system

13

The nervous system is made of what two types of cells

Neurons and glial(neuroglial) cells

14

Function of neurons

Conduct impulses either to or from the nervous system

15

Dendrites

Transmit impulses to the cell body

16

Axon

Carries impulses away from the cell body

17

Myelin sheath

A white fatty covering of the axon

18

Neurilemma

Outermost layer of the axon, outside of the myelin sheath

19

Synonym for glia

Neuroglia

20

Neuroglia

The supporting tissue cells of the nervous system

21

Aut/o

Self

22

Cerebell/o

Cerebellum

23

Encephal/o

Brain

24

Cerebr/o

Brain

25

Cervic/o

Neck

26

Coccyg/o

Coccyx (tailbone)

27

Crani/o

Cranium

28

Dendr/o

Tree

29

Dur/o

Dura matter

30

Gli/o

Neuroglia

31

Kerat/o

Cornea; hard or horny

32

Lumb/o

Lower back

33

Mening/o

Meninges

34

Ment/o

Mind

35

Myel/o

Bone marrow or spinal cord

36

Nerv/o, neur/o

Nerve

37

Phren/o

Mind or diaphragm

38

Physi/o

Nature

39

Retin/o

Retina

40

Sacr/o

Sacrum

41

Spin/o

Spine

42

Thorac/o

Thorax (chest)

43

Vascul/o

Vessel

44

Agora-

Open marketplace

45

-asthenia

Weakness

46

-esthenia

Sensation

47

-lexia

Words, phrases

48

-orexia

Appetite

49

What part of the brain accounts for 7/8 of it total weight

Cerebrum

50

What is located below the thalamus

Hypothalamus

51

Additional protection for the brain comes from the ________________
Fluid and three membranes collectively called the___________

Cerebrospinal ; meninges

52

Three parts of the brain stem

Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

53

The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the

Cerebrum

54

The diencephalon is made up of what two parts

Thalamus and hypothalamus

55

Five types of nerves top to bottom

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

56

Receptors

Nerve endkng that allow us to see, hear, taste, smell, and feel

57

Chemoreceptors

Receptors that detect chemicals

58

Thermoreceptors

Receptors that detect heat

59

Photoreceptors

Receptors in the eyes that detect light

60

Lacrimal

Pertaining to tears

61

Nasolacrimal ducts

Carry tears to the nasal cavity and explains why a runny nose can accompany crying

62

Cornea

The convex, transparent structure at the front of the eyeball.

63

Retina

Located in the posterior part of the eye, the part that contains photoreceptors (rods and cones).

64

Another name for balance

Equilibrium

65

Function of the outer ear

Collects sound waves and directs them into the ear

66

Cochlea

The part of the inner ear that contains receptors that enable us to hear.

67

Semicircular canals in the ear help with what

Sense of balance

68

Epidural hematoma

Blood accumulates in the epidural portion of the brain

69

Three levels of the brain

Subdural, epidural, intracerebral

70

Dura mater

The outmost and toughest of the three meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord

71

Subdural hematoma

Accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater

72

Intracerebral hematoma

Bleeding within the brain

73

Transient ischemic attack

A breif interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes dizziness, numbness, and weakness

74

Hydrocephalus

Accumulation of fluid in the skull

75

Cerebral aneurism

Localized dilation of the wall of a cerebral artery

76

Akinesia

Complete or partial loss of muscle movement

77

Anesthesia

Loss of sensation with or without loss consciousness.

78

Aphagia

Inability or refusal to swallow

79

Aphasia

An abnormal neurological condition that is an impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs.

80

Astigmatism

Uneven curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye that prevents the sharp focus of an image on the retina

81

Bradykinesia

Abnormal slowness of movement and sluggishness of mental and physical processes

82

Cephalalgia

Headache

83

Cerebral concussion

Loss of consciousness, either temporary or prolonged, as a result of a blow to the head

84

Cerebral contusion

Bruising of the brain

85

Cerebral hemorrhage

As a result the rupture of a sclerosed, diseased, or injured blood vessel in the brain

86

Cerebral palsy

Brain disorder characterized by paralysis and lack of muscle coordination. Results from brain defects or trauma at birth

87

Coma

State of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused, even by powerful stimulation

88

Diplegia

Paralysis affecting like-parts on both sides of the body

89

Diplopia

Double vision

90

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

91

Dysphasia

Speech impairment caused by a lesion in the brain

92

Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

93

Encephalmalacia

Softening of the brain

94

Encephalomeningitis

Inflammation of the brain and meninges

95

Epilepsy

Neurologic disorders of seizures, sensory disturbances, or loss of consciousness

96

Glaucoma

Abnormal condition of increased pressure within the eye

97

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body

98

Hyperkinesia

Abnormally increased activity of motor function

99

Hyperopia

Farsighted, an error of refraction in which the rays of light entering the eye are brought to a focus behind the retina

100

Meniere disease

Chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by recurrent episodes of dizziness

101

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

102

Meningocele

Herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or vertebral column

103

Multiple sclerosis

Chronic CNS disease with progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths of the neurons

104

Myasthenia gravis

Disease characterized by muscle weakness and abnormal fatigue

105

Myelitis

Inflammation of bone marrow or the spinal cord

106

Myopia

Nearsighted, a defect where rays of light are brought to focus in front of the retina

107

Narcolepsy

Chronic disorder involving random attacks of sleep

108

Neuralgia

Pain along the course of a nerve

109

Parkinson disease

Chronic nervous disease characterized by a fine, slowly spreading tremor and muscle weakness

110

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities

111

Retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the back of the eye

112

Shingles

Acute, infectious eruption of vesicles, usually on the trunk of the body along a peripheral nerve

113

Tinnitus

Subjective ringing of one or both ears

114

Akinesia

Loss of muscle movement

115

Psychosis

Any major mental disorder characterized by a gross impairment in reality testing.

116

Schizophrnia

Gross distortion if reality, fragmented thoughts, withdrawal of social interaction

117

Agoraphobia

Fear of open spaces

118

Anorexia nervosa

Condition characterized by anxiety and fear of becoming obese

119

Neurasthenia

A nervous condition characterized by chronic weakness, fatigue, and exhaustion

120

Autism

Impaired development of social interaction and communication

121

Alzheimer disease

Progressive mental deterioration that can include confusion, memory failure, restlessness, and inability to Carey out Purposeful movement

122

Analgestics

Agents that relieve pain without causing loss of consiousness

123

Hypnotics

Drugs used as sedatives to produce a calming effect

124

Anticonvulsives

Relieve or prevent convulsions