Ch. 13 Innate & Adaptive Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 13 Innate & Adaptive Immunity Deck (36):
1

First line of defense =

outer barrier

2

Second line of defense:

inflammatory process and innate immune response

3

Third Line of defense:
____
Defend body from:

Help find __ and __ cells and __ them if found in body
Inappropriate immune response can__ __ ___.

Immunity!
organisms that have gotten through the first 2 lines of defense.

abnormal; cancer; destroy

lead to disorders

4

the main components of adaptive immunity:

1. B and T lymphocytes

5

Innate immunity:

1. neutrophils
2. natural killer cells
3. dendritic cells
4. macrophages

6

Our body can recognize self-cells via ___. Our immune system will __ these cells marked with this.

HLA (human leukocytes antigen proteins)

ignore

7

What are the two types of adaptive immunity?

cell mediated (T) and humoral (B)

8

Cytotoxic T cells =

CD8

9

there are two types of T __ cells (CD4) :

helper
Th1 and Th2

10

Th1:

calls other t cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) to the area to destroy foreign cells

11

Th2: responsible for combined immunity: will call ___

B lymphocytes - will generate memory cells so they can see the foreign antigens again and attack more quickly

12

Humoral immunity is the __ lymphocytes
can secrete __ from __ __ and will make __ __

B;
antibodies; plasma cells; memory cells

13

Antigens can be __ or __

microbes or non-microbes (like chemicals, dyes, coal dust, asbestos)

14

__ are what the B plasma cells release that can recognize antigens

Anitbodies

15

HLAs are located on __ __ __

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

16

How many MHC classes are there?

3, but we are only discussing first 2

17

MHC Class 1 is found on __ __ __ on the surface

all nucleated cells

18

MHC Class 2 are restricted to __ __ than can __ __
examples :

immune cells; present antigens

macrophages; dendritic cells that engulf foreign antigens; they will put a mark on themselves on the surface as MHC 2 molecules

19

T cells are developed in the

thymus

20

B cells are developed in the

bone marrow

21

Both t and b cells are found in __ __

lymph nodes

22

IgG:

1. most common
2. smallest can exit blood vessel and enter the interstitial fluid and cross placental
3. mounts the biggest response after we have come in contact with an organism previously (2ND EXPOSURE)
4. target virus, toxin, bacteria

23

IgM:

1. is a little lager so stay in intravascular pool (can't cross capillary bed)
2. MOUNTS THE FIRST INITIAL RESPONSE
3. activates the complement system

24

IgA:

1. both a part of innate and adaptive immunity
2. part of innate immunity but come from B cells located in tissue under skin/mucous membranes
3. Attacks the antigens before they get in
4. can pass on from mother to child via breast milk (colostrum = first breast milk)

25

IgD works closely with __, located primarily on __ cells membranes

Can stimulate _ cells to multiply, differentiate into __ and __ cells
They can help secrete other immunoglobulins such as __ and __

IgM

B

B; plasma; memory

IgG and IgM

26

IgE : 2 main fxns

1.Protect against parasites 2.responsible for initiating inflammatory and allergic rxns (via histamine that is released from basophil and mast cells )

27

IgE bound to receptors on __/__ __ cause mast cell ___ -> ___ release -> trigger of __ __

basophils/mast cells; degranulation; histamine; inflammatory response

28

5 fxns of Antibodies

1. Immunoglobulin can bind the antigens (antigen-antibody complex) make it bigger so precipitate out of blood - easier for macrophages to find , engulf, and destroy
2. Neutralization: neutralize toxin secreted by bacteria
3. Opsonization: coat antigens making it easier to be recognized by phagocytic cells
4. Complement activation ;trigger inflammatory response and localize the infection

29

ELISA detects antibodies to determine if we have been :

exposed to the microorganism

30

Indirect coombs test

used to prepare blood transfusion and to see if the mother and baby are Rh compatible

31

MHC typing

to prepare for tissue transplant to see if they match before the transplant; we need to match tissue based on those MHC where there's HLA proteins before a transplant can occur

32

Primary response:

first exposure to antigen; 1-2 weeks for antibody titer to reach efficacy

IgM kicks in first and later IgG

33

Secondary response:

repeat exposure to the same antigen; more rapid response with efficacy in 1-3 days

IgG first goes and then IgM

34

Artificial Active

vaccination

35

Passive is

temporary

36

Natural:

from mother to child