Ch. 2 Water, Biochemistry, and Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Water, Biochemistry, and Cells Deck (45):
1

life

growth, movement, reproduction, repose to external and internal stimuli, and can maintain homeostasis

2

universal solvent, polar

water

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polarity

poles have different charges.

4

electronegative

more attractive to electrons. O2 is more so and pulls electrons closer when bonded to H2. creates partial charges. (O2 partially negative and H2 partially positive

5

hydrogen bond

weak bond between adjacent water molecules from partial charges

6

cohesion

tendancy for molecules to stick together. reason water is so difficult to heat.

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reaction of an acid and a base

salts

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hydrophobic

non polar

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hydrophilic

polar

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measure of acidity or basic. determined by concentration of H+ ions

pH scale

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different energy levels based on distance from nucleus

electron cloud

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electron shell

1st level. can hold 2 electrons

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2nd and 3rd energy shell

can hold 8 electrons each

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outermost energy level. where bonding occurrs. atoms with same number electrons in this show similar chemical behavior

valence shell

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atoms share electrons. usually atoms with 4-5 e-

covalent bond

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atoms take/receive e-. usually atoms with 1-3 and 6-7 e-. creates positive and negative charged ions

ionic bond

17

CH2O ratio. mono, dia, and polysaccharides

carbohydrates. mono and diasaccharides=simple sugars (glucose and sucrose)
polysaccharides=complex sugars (fructose)

18

chains of amino acids. 50% dry weight of cells

protein

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carboxy grou, side croup, and amino group

amino acid

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bond between amino acids

peptide bond

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fold upon themselves to create protein with specialized properties

polypeptide chain

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primarily hydrocarbons. partially or entirely hydrophobic

lipids

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3 carbon glycerol molecule with up to 3 hydrocarbon chains. energy storage

fat

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4 carbon rings. cholesterol. maintain fluidity of membranes

steroids

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glycerol with only 2 tails. 3rd bond is to phosphate head. head hydrophilic, tail hydrophobic

phospholipid

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monomers of nucleotides. sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen containing base

nucleic acid

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helps cells synthesize protein

RNA

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primary storage of genetic info. deoxyribose sugar

DNA

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adenine guanine thymine and cytosine

nitrogenous base

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complementary base pairs

adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine

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A and G. 2 ring structures

purine

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T and C. single ring structures

pyrimidine

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single celled bacteria with no nucleus or membrane bound organelles

prokaryotic

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nucleus and organelles with membranes. single and multi celled

eukaryotic

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plasma membrane

phospholipid bilayer. fluid mosaic (lipids and proteinsmove freely and different regions ahve different lipids and proteins

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nucleus

houses chromatin (DNA and proteins). studded with nuclear pores to regulate traffic

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cytosol

watery matrix that houses organelles

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cytoplasm

cytosol and organelles

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organelles

covered in membranes

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mitochondria

convert food to ATP. inner membrane involved in production of ATP, matrix is location of cellular respiration

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lysosomes

break down substances before mitochondria. roam cell

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ER

endoplasmic reticulum. rough: synthesizes protein. ribosomes attached. smooth: detoxifies substances

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vesicles

transport to golgi or plasma membrane

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ribosomes

built in nucleus and sent to cutoplasm. protein synthesis

45

centrioles

microtubules that move chromosomes when cell divides