Ch. 4 Cellular Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Cellular Respiration Deck (26):
1

converts energy in chemical bonds of food into energy cells can use

cellular respiration

2

where is energy stored?

in the electrons of bonds

3

nuncleotide triphosphate. contains nitrogenous base (adenine), sugar, and 3 phosphates.

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

4

phosphates in ATP

negatively charged. releasing them releases energy the cell can use. can be regenerated by adding a phosphate

5

ADP

adenosine diphosphate.

6

removing a phosphate group from ATP, making ADP, and transferring it to another molecule to energize

phosphorylation

7

aerobic respiration

requires O2. uses glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain

8

located in cytoplasm. carbon-glucose molecule is broken down into 3 carbon pyruvic acids producing 2 ATP. glucose+ water->carbon dioxide+water

glycolysis

9

location of glycolysis

cytoplasm

10

how many ATP are produced in glycolysis

2 ATP

11

what is broken down in glycolysis to produce 2 ATP

carbon-glucose molecule into 3 carbon pyruvic acids

12

what happens after pyruvic acid is decarboxylated?

the now 2 carbon fragment is metabolized further in the mitochondria entering the citric acid cycle

13

located in matrix of mitochondria. uses products of glycolysis, pyruvic acid, to produce 2 ATP per glucose molecule.cycle harvests electrons from remnants of glucose and releases CO2. NAD+ picks up 2 H+ and releases 1 H+, turning into NADH. NADH transports harvested e- from the cycle to transport chain. pyruvic acid->3CO2+1ATP+5 reduced enzymes

citric acid cycle

14

location of citric acid cycle

matrix of mitochondria

15

how many ATP are produced in the citric acid cycle?

2 ATP per glucose molecule

16

what is NAD+'s role in the citric acid cycle?

picks up 2H+ and releases one to turn into NADH. NADH is used to transport e- from the cycle to the transport chain

17

chemical formula for citric acid cycle

pyruvic acid->3CO2+1ATP+5 reduced enzymes

18

NADH bring e- which move through protein into the inner membrane space, decreasing the H+ concentration in the matrix and increasing H+ concentration in the inner membrane space. H+ cant go through hydrophobic core of membrane and must travel through ATP synthase enzyme. enzyme generates energy from H+ ions rushing through it. creates 26 ATP

electron transport chain

19

what brings the e- to the electron transport chain

NADH

20

how many ATP are produced in the electron transport chain?

26 ATP

21

how is ATP generated in the electron transport chain?

H+ rushing through the ATP synthase enzyme

22

Why does the H+ need to go through the synthase in the electron transport chain?

it cant travel through the hydrophobic core of the membrane

23

generating ATP without O2

anaerobic respiration

24

doesnt use O2 and will run low on NAD+ after a while. cells use fementation to regenerate NAD+ causing buildup of lactic acid. lactic acid is sent to liver where is is converted back to pyruvic acid using O2

glycolysis in anaerobic respiration

25

NADH dumping e- on pyruvic acid to make NAD+ because electron transport chain doesnt work without O2

production of lactic acid.

26

why do you breath heavily after exercise?

the O2 is needed so the liver can convert lactic acid back to pyruvic acid