Flashcards in Ch. 4 Cellular Respiration Deck (26):
converts energy in chemical bonds of food into energy cells can use
where is energy stored?
in the electrons of bonds
nuncleotide triphosphate. contains nitrogenous base (adenine), sugar, and 3 phosphates.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
phosphates in ATP
negatively charged. releasing them releases energy the cell can use. can be regenerated by adding a phosphate
removing a phosphate group from ATP, making ADP, and transferring it to another molecule to energize
requires O2. uses glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain
located in cytoplasm. carbon-glucose molecule is broken down into 3 carbon pyruvic acids producing 2 ATP. glucose+ water->carbon dioxide+water
location of glycolysis
how many ATP are produced in glycolysis
what is broken down in glycolysis to produce 2 ATP
carbon-glucose molecule into 3 carbon pyruvic acids
what happens after pyruvic acid is decarboxylated?
the now 2 carbon fragment is metabolized further in the mitochondria entering the citric acid cycle
located in matrix of mitochondria. uses products of glycolysis, pyruvic acid, to produce 2 ATP per glucose molecule.cycle harvests electrons from remnants of glucose and releases CO2. NAD+ picks up 2 H+ and releases 1 H+, turning into NADH. NADH transports harvested e- from the cycle to transport chain. pyruvic acid->3CO2+1ATP+5 reduced enzymes
citric acid cycle
location of citric acid cycle
matrix of mitochondria
how many ATP are produced in the citric acid cycle?
2 ATP per glucose molecule
what is NAD+'s role in the citric acid cycle?
picks up 2H+ and releases one to turn into NADH. NADH is used to transport e- from the cycle to the transport chain
chemical formula for citric acid cycle
pyruvic acid->3CO2+1ATP+5 reduced enzymes
NADH bring e- which move through protein into the inner membrane space, decreasing the H+ concentration in the matrix and increasing H+ concentration in the inner membrane space. H+ cant go through hydrophobic core of membrane and must travel through ATP synthase enzyme. enzyme generates energy from H+ ions rushing through it. creates 26 ATP
electron transport chain
what brings the e- to the electron transport chain
how many ATP are produced in the electron transport chain?
how is ATP generated in the electron transport chain?
H+ rushing through the ATP synthase enzyme
Why does the H+ need to go through the synthase in the electron transport chain?
it cant travel through the hydrophobic core of the membrane
generating ATP without O2
doesnt use O2 and will run low on NAD+ after a while. cells use fementation to regenerate NAD+ causing buildup of lactic acid. lactic acid is sent to liver where is is converted back to pyruvic acid using O2
glycolysis in anaerobic respiration
NADH dumping e- on pyruvic acid to make NAD+ because electron transport chain doesnt work without O2
production of lactic acid.