Ch. 5 DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5 DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis Deck (46):
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uncontrolled cell division

cancer

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unregulated cell division that leads to a pileup of cells that form a lump. mass of cells with no apparent function

tumor

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tumor that stays in one place and doesnt affect surrounding structures

benign tumor

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tumor that invades surrounding tissue

malignant tumor

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cells of malignant tumor break away and start new cancers at another location

metastasis

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produce exact copies of themselves via cell division. offspring identical to parent. single celled organisms

asexual reproduction

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requires genetic information from 2 parents. egg and sperm combine information at fertilization

sexual reproduction

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instructions for building the proteins a cell requires. carried on DNA

genes

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DNA wrapped around proteins. uncondensed before cell division. becomes condensed in short linear form to move easier and prevent getting tangled during division.

chromosomes

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copy of a replicated chromosome. each is one DNA molecule

sister chromatid

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where sister chromatid attach to each other. toward middle of chromosome

centromere

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preceed cell division. double stranded is split and copied. new nucleotides are added to each original strand. creates 2 daughter DNA molecules, each containing a new and original strand

DNA replication

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each new DNA is 1/2 conserved parental DNA and 1/2 is new

semiconservative DAP replication

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enzyme that binds nucleotides to each other on new strand, moving along unwound DNA helix. catalyzes covalent bonds between nucleotids

DNA polymerase

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life cycle of a cell

cell cyle

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where normal cell spends most time. performs typical functions and produces its specific proteins. time spent in this phase depends on how frequent the cell divides (skin spends less time, nerve cells spend more time)

interphase. has G1, S, and G2

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first gap of growth. organelles duplicate and cell grows larger.

G1 phase

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synthesis of DNA and chromosomes replicate

S phase

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second gap. grows and prepares for division. synthesis of proteins that aid mitosis

G2 phase

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asexual reproduction. happens in all cells with a nucleus. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokenesis

mitosis

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replicated chromosomes condense. microtubules forma nd grow, reaching from poles of cell, helping cell expand. nuclear envelope breaks down to give access to chromosomes. centrioles anchor one end of each microtubule to pole

prophase

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replicated chromosomes line across equator of cell in single file. microtubules attach to chromosomes at centromere

metaphase

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centromere spilt. motor protein pull sister chromatid to opposite poles.

anaphase

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nuclear envelope redevelopes around new daughter nuclei. chromosomes uncondense

telophase

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band of proteins encircle cell at equator and divides cytoplasm. contracts and pinches apart the two new cells. cell re enters interpase

cytokenesis

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specialized sex cells. products of meiosis. have one chromosome from every pair

gametes

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highly magnified picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs. usually from nuclei of WBCs stopped at metaphase. composed of sister chromatids and shaped like "X". paired withmate of same size, shape, and centromere posistion

karyotype

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22 pairs of nonsec chromosomes. homologous pairs

autosomes

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one pair. X and Y chromosomes.

sex chromosomes

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male sex chromosomes

XY

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female sex chromosomes

XX

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each member carries same genes along its length. (not same versions of gene)

homologous pairs

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different versions of the same gene

allele

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only on member of each pair is present in cell. egg and sperm cells

haploid (n)

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2 sets of each chromosome is present. zygots and somatic cells

diploid (2n)

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meiosis interphase

same as mitosis interphase. once DNA is replicated, it enters meiosis 1.

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same as mitosis but product is 2 haploid daughter cells

meiosis 1

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same as mitosis but product is 4 haploid daughter cells

meiosis 2

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durign prophase 1. exchange of portions of chromosomes within homologous pairs. occurs several times on each pair during each meiosis

crossing over

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2 genes on same chromosome. move together. increases genetic diversity by increasing number of gene combinations

linked gene

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increases number of genetically distinct gametes. durring metaphase 1. changes way in which chromosomes will end up together in a gamete

random alignment

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failure of chromosomes to separate. can be autosomes or sex chromosomes

nondisjunction

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extra chromosme

trisomy

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absence of chromosome

monosomy

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down syndrome, patau syndrome, an dedwards syndrome

trisomy of 21, 13, and 18 chromosomes. nondisjunction of autosomes

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turner syndrome, meta female, kleinfelter syndrome, and XYY

nondisjunction of sex chromosomes.