Flashcards in Ch. 5 DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis Deck (46)
uncontrolled cell division
unregulated cell division that leads to a pileup of cells that form a lump. mass of cells with no apparent function
tumor that stays in one place and doesnt affect surrounding structures
tumor that invades surrounding tissue
cells of malignant tumor break away and start new cancers at another location
produce exact copies of themselves via cell division. offspring identical to parent. single celled organisms
requires genetic information from 2 parents. egg and sperm combine information at fertilization
instructions for building the proteins a cell requires. carried on DNA
DNA wrapped around proteins. uncondensed before cell division. becomes condensed in short linear form to move easier and prevent getting tangled during division.
copy of a replicated chromosome. each is one DNA molecule
where sister chromatid attach to each other. toward middle of chromosome
preceed cell division. double stranded is split and copied. new nucleotides are added to each original strand. creates 2 daughter DNA molecules, each containing a new and original strand
each new DNA is 1/2 conserved parental DNA and 1/2 is new
semiconservative DAP replication
enzyme that binds nucleotides to each other on new strand, moving along unwound DNA helix. catalyzes covalent bonds between nucleotids
life cycle of a cell
where normal cell spends most time. performs typical functions and produces its specific proteins. time spent in this phase depends on how frequent the cell divides (skin spends less time, nerve cells spend more time)
interphase. has G1, S, and G2
first gap of growth. organelles duplicate and cell grows larger.
synthesis of DNA and chromosomes replicate
second gap. grows and prepares for division. synthesis of proteins that aid mitosis
asexual reproduction. happens in all cells with a nucleus. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokenesis
replicated chromosomes condense. microtubules forma nd grow, reaching from poles of cell, helping cell expand. nuclear envelope breaks down to give access to chromosomes. centrioles anchor one end of each microtubule to pole
replicated chromosomes line across equator of cell in single file. microtubules attach to chromosomes at centromere
centromere spilt. motor protein pull sister chromatid to opposite poles.
nuclear envelope redevelopes around new daughter nuclei. chromosomes uncondense
band of proteins encircle cell at equator and divides cytoplasm. contracts and pinches apart the two new cells. cell re enters interpase
specialized sex cells. products of meiosis. have one chromosome from every pair
highly magnified picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs. usually from nuclei of WBCs stopped at metaphase. composed of sister chromatids and shaped like "X". paired withmate of same size, shape, and centromere posistion
22 pairs of nonsec chromosomes. homologous pairs
one pair. X and Y chromosomes.