Ch 9. Evidence for Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9. Evidence for Evolution Deck (33):
1

biological evolution

change in characteristics of a population or organisms that occurs over generations. change must be due to inherited genes to be considered evolutionary

2

species

group of organisms that regularly breed and can produce fertile offspring

3

biological populations

species that are divided by geography into smaller groups

4

natural selection

process by which populations adapt to changing environment

5

microevolution

changes in characteristics of a population within a species

6

macroevolution

changes as a result of microevolution that result in a new species

7

theory of evolution

all species present on earth today are descendants of a single common ancestor and all species represent the product of millions of years of accumulated microevolutionary changes.

8

scientific theory

body of scientifically acceptable general principles that help explain how the universe works

9

charles darwin

went on the voyage of the beagle and examined the differences between organisms across the planet. develped hypothesis of natural selection and common descent

10

special creation

belief that God created all organisms. static model theory

11

transformation hypothesis

organisms were created and have evolved WITHIN species

12

separate types hypotheses

organisms were created (animals and plants) and then evolved into species

13

biological classification

domain-kingdom-phylum(diversion)-class-order-family-genus-species. show different degrees of relationships

14

anatomical similarities

homological structures in species. inherited basic structure from a common ancestor and evolved to their modified group

15

vestigal structures

useless traits (flightless birds with wings) trait was functional in ancestral species but lost function over time in that species

16

developmental pathways

diverse organisms look very similar as early embryos

17

DNA similarities

DNA sequence displays pattern of similarity

18

distribution of organisms

species are generally descended from ancestors in the same geographic location

19

fossil evidence

shown that horses evolved from small catlike animals with 4 toes

20

linneaen classification

all organisms in a category share similarities. the more subdivided the class becomes, the more similarities they will have

21

homology

similarities in anatomy, behavior, and genes between species

22

anatomical and developmental homology

sharing of traits (opposable thumbs)

23

vestigal traits

similarities in functional and nonfunctional traits in a species

24

molecular homology

similarities in DNA sequence between species

25

molecular clock

rate of DNA sequence change due to mutations is constant

26

biogeography

distribution of species on earth

27

fossil

rock model of an organic structure

28

hominins

humans and human ancestors

29

fossil pedigrees

determining date of an ancient fossil

30

radiometric dating

relies on radioactive decay

31

origin of life

where the common ancestor came from

32

alternatives to theory of evolution and origin of life

1. nonbiological processes assemble simple molecules into more complex molecules
2. molecules assemble into chains that store information and drive chemical reactions
3. collections of complex molecules assemble into self-replicating cell

33

consilience

concurrence among observations from different sources