Ch. 3 Cells and Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 Cells and Metabolism Deck (26):
1

required in large amounts. water, carbs, proteins, fat

macronutrients

2

carbon bound to as many H+ as possible. solid at room temp

saturated fat

3

carbon double bond prevents saturation. liquid at room temp

unsaturated fat

4

many unsaturated fat. kinked structure

polyunsaturated fat

5

combines H+ gas to increase saturation levels. slows spoiling and solidifies oils

hydrogenated

6

Straight chain saturated fat rather than cis formation. Non beneficial to body

Trans fat

7

Required in minute amounts. Neither destroyed nor burned for energy

Micronutrients

8

No input of energy is required. By way of concentration gradient through plasma membrane. Hydrophobic, CO2, and O2 molecules

Passive transport

9

movement form higher concentration to lower. continues until equilibrium is met and there is no concentration gradient. type of passive transport

diffusion

10

proteins in bilayer allow hydrophilic molecules to pass in and out of cell according to concentration gradient. type of passive transport

facilitated diffusion

11

movement of water across membrane according to concentration gradient. type of passive transport

osmosis

12

input of energy required. against concentration gradient. uses proteins powered by ATP to pump against gradient

active transport

13

membrane bound vesicle carrying molecules too large to pass through proteins, fuses with plasma membrane and releases contents into exterior of cell

exocytosis

14

substance brought inot cell by pinching inward of bilayer, releasing contents into interior of cell

endocytosis

15

speed at which body breaks down food into their parts. regulated by enzyme that catalyze rate of reactions

metabolism

16

end in -ase and describe what theyre catalyzing. catalyze by lowering activation energy

enzyme

17

energy required to start a metabolic reaction

activation energy

18

chemicals that are metabolized by an enzyme catalyzed retain. enzyme places stress on chemical bonds, decreasing energy need to breack the bonds (activation energy)

substrate

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where the substrate binds to the enzyme. has own shape and chemistry

active site

20

shape chane by enzyme in response to substrate binding. creates stress on substrate bonds and resume shape after reaction

induced fit

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result of chape and active site of enzyme. due to differing unique sequences of amino acids and their side group

specificity

22

enzyme deficiency of lactase. lactic acid is by product of lactose being digested by bacteria in intestine

lactose intolerance

23

measure of bodys energy use

metabolic rate

24

resting energy of awake body. average is 70kcal/hr

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

25

sppeds rate at which fat breaks down, making it necessary to consume more calories than women on average

testosterone

26

calores to consume

desired weight x 11 + calories burned during exercise