Ch. 8 Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Ch. 8 Gene Expression > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 8 Gene Expression Deck (28):
1

process of using instructions carried by a gene to build a particular protein

protein synthesis

2

coping of DNA into RNA. happens inside nucleus

transcription

3

enzyme that binds to promoter to begin transcription. unzips DNA to make RNA template. creates complementary messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA polymerase

4

mRNA is blueprint for protein. happens in cytoplasm

translation

5

made of rRNA. large and small subunit come together and mRNA is threaded between them

ribosome

6

carries specific amino acid on the anticodon

transfer RNA (tRNA)

7

3 nucleotides long and encode a particular amino acid on the mRNA

codon

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3 nucleotides long. bind to codon if match. complementary to codon. adds amino acid to growing polypeptide

anticodon

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codon that does not code for an amino acid. growing protein is then released and folds upon itself and moves to required location within cell

stop codon

10

determines which mRNA codons code for which amino acids

genetic code

11

AUG

start codon

12

UAA, UAG, UGA

stop codon

13

changes to DNA sequence

mutations

14

mutation has no effect on protein

neutral mutation

15

insertion or deletion of nucleotides shifts the reading frame

frameshift mutation

16

triplet groupings of nucleotides

reading frame

17

turning a gene on or off in response to cells needs

regulating gene expression

18

undifferentiated and do not perform a specific function

stem cells

19

using stem cells to produce healthy tissues to replace damaged tissues

therapeutic cloning

20

stem cells are able to become any other cell

totipotent

21

determining nucleotide base sequence for the entire human genome and the location of each of the genes

human genome project

22

important genes are often common in many organisms other than humans

model organism

23

replacing defective genes with functional genes

gene therapy

24

supplying embryo with normal versions of defective gene to be replicated. making most cells carry the functioning gene

germ-line gene therapy

25

fix or replace defective protein in only affected cells. introduce functional version to individual defective cell in lab. allow it to reproduce and the place copies of healthy cell in decreased person

somatic cell gene therapy

26

genetic mutation that results in absence of important enzymes and severley weakens immune system. any infection or exposure can kill or disable affected person

sever combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

27

making an exact copy of an entire organsim

cloning

28

removing nucleus of egg cell and fusing the cell to another cell of another organism. treated egg cells are then placed in a uterus to develop

nuclear transfer