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Flashcards in Ch 3 Deck (48):
1

membrane lipid

phospholipid, glycolipid, cholesterol

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phosphate head

polar and hydrophilic

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fatty acid tail

nonpolar and hydrophobic

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2 Types of membrane protein

integral and peripheral

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function of membrane protein

transport, receptor, attach to cytoskeleton, enzymatic activity, intercellular joining, cell-cell recognition.

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cells are surrounded by

interstitual fluid

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plasma membrane is

selectively permeable

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passive process

no atp required, substance moves down concentration gradient

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active process

atp required,

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Two passive processes

diffusion and filtration

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collisions cause

molecules to move down concentratiojn gradient

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Diffusion influenced by

concentration gradient
temperature
mass
surface area
distance

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facilitated diffusion

bind to protein carrier

moving through water filled- ion channel

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leakage channel

always open

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gated channel

controlled by chemical signals

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osmosis

solvent high to low concentration

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active transport

primary- direct atp
secondary- indirect atp
-symport and antiport pumps

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vesicular transport

transport large particles through membrane sacs called vessicles

endocytosis- transport in cell

exocytosis- transport out of cell

transcytosis- in n out of cell

vessicular trafficking- from one area to another in cell

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pinocytosis

plasma membrane infolds and brings extracellular fluid and dissolved solutes inside cell.

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cytoskeleton

rods through cytosol, proteins link rod to other cell structure.

Microfilament
microtubule
intermediate filament

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microfilament

mechanical support

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intermediate filament

anchor organelles

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microtubule

helps move substance

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centrosome

organelle near nucleus controls organization of microtubules

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centriole

small tubes by microtubule

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microvilli

fingerlike, increase surface area

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ribosome

protein production

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ER

interconnected tube,

Rough ER and Smooth ER

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Smooth ER

Lipid metabolism; cholesterol and steroid-based hormone synthesis

Detoxification of drugs

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golgi apparatus

package, modified, sent off

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lysosome

bag containing digestive enzyme

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peroxisome

powerful oxidase, detoxify harmful substance, neutralize free radical

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proteasome

destroy faulty, unneeded, faulty protein by cutting smaller peptides

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mitochondria

provide atp

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nucleus

blueprint for celular protein

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chromatin

strand dna, arranged as nucleosome,

condenses into chromosome

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nucleoli

rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly

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rRNA

translate message from mrna

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mRNA

instruction for building polypeptide

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tRNA

bind to amino acid and pair with base of codon of mRNA

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protein synthesis

replication- dna duplicated

transcription- dna informed coded in mRNA

translation- mRNA decoded to assemble polypeptide

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codon

three base sequence of mRNA

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anticodon

binds mRNA at ribosome by hydrogen atoms

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meiosis

cell division produce gametes

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mitotic cell division

produce clones

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mitosis

division of nucleus

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cell cycle

G1- growth
s- growth and dna synthesis
g2- growth and final phase for division

48

mitotic phases

prophase- chromatin condenses into chromosome

metaphase- centromeres of chromosome line up

anaphase- chromosome split and sister cell move up

telophase- spindle dissolve, regain chromatin appearance, forms new membrane

cytokenesis- cytoplasm split