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Flashcards in CH 4 Deck (57):
1

Primary Tissues

Epithelial- cover
connective- support
muscle- produce movement
nerve- controls

2

epithelial functions

protect
absorb
filtration
excretion
secretion
sensory

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Epithelial characteristics

polarity
specialized contact
support by connective tissue
avascular, innervate
regenerate

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cells have polarity

apical surface
basal surface

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microvilli

fingerlike, increase surface area

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basal lamina

underside of epithelial layer

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specialized contact

bind adjacent cells:

Tight junction and desmosomes

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connective tissue support

reticular lamina- under basal lamina and network of collagen fibers

basement membrane- basal + reticular lamina
resist stretching and tearing

9

avascular but innervated

no blood vessels, nourished by underlying connective tissue

supplied by nerve fibers

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regeneration

stimulate by loss of apical-basal polarity and lateral contact

adequate nutrition can replace lost cell by cell division

11

simple epithelia

absorb, secrete, filtrate, very thin

12

simple squamous

(secrete) allow material to pass through diffusion.

found in rapid diffusion prioritizes

(kidney, lungs)

endothelium- lines lymph, blood vessels and heart

mesothelium- epithelium of serous membrane in ventral body cavity

13

simple cuboidal

secretion and absorption

kidney tubule

14

simple columnar

absorption and secretion of mucus and enzymes by cilia

(digestive tracht, gall bladder, stomach to rectum)

15

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

single layer, nucleus at different levels

Secrete substances particularly mucus, propulsion by ciliary.

most of upper respiratory tracht

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stratified epithelial tissue

2 or more layers, regenerate from below, protection is major role

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stratified squamous

surface cells have keratin and dead, basal cells are active produce more cells

protects against abrasion

epidermis, esophagus, vagina

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stratified cuboidal

rare, found in sweat and mammary, 2 cell layers thick

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stratified columnar

protection and secretion

male urethra and some in large glands

basal cells cuboidal superficial columnar

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transitional epithelium

change shape and stretch, forms hollow urinary organs

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gland

cells that make and secrete aqueous fluid called secretion

classified by endocrine or exocrine

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ductless gland

secretion not released in duct

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endocrine

secrete hormone through lymph or blood

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exocrine

secretes to body surface

sweat, oil, saliva

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unicellular exocrine gland

mucous and goblet cells

produce mucin, in water becomes mucous

26

multicellular gland

simple or compound gland, branched or unbranched

tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar

secrete: Merocrine - exocytosis- sweat

holocrine- accumulate then rupture

apocrine- accumulates but only apex ruptures

27

connective tissue

made up off: ground substance, fibers, cells

function: bind and support, protecting, insulating, storing reserve fuel, transporting substance

28

connective tissue characteristic

mesenchyme embryonic tissue

varying vascularity

extracellular matrix- nonliving

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ground substance

unstructured materials between cells, medium for solutes to diffuse between blood capillary and cells.

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fibers

collagen- strongest most abundant, strength

elastic fiber- elastin fiber that allow for stretch and recoil

reticular- short, branched collagen fiber

31

blast cell

immature, secrete ground substance and fiber

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types of blasts

fibroblast- connective tissue proper

chondroblast- cartilage

osteoblast-bone

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cyte cell

mature cell, maintain matrix

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type of cytes

chondrocytes- cartilage

osteocyte- bones

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other connective tissue cell

fat- storage

white blood- tissue injury

mast- inflammatory response against foreign microorganism

macrophage- phagocyte that eat dead cells, microorganism

36

connective tissue proper

loose connective- areolar, adipose, reticular

dense connective- dense, irregular, elastic

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areolar

gel matrix, wraps and cushions

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adipocyte

reserve fuel,

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reticular

support free blood cell in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow.

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loose connective tissue

network of reticular fiber, forms soft internal skeleton (stroma) that support other cells

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dense regular

primarily collagen made of fibroblast, attach to muscle or bone

tendons and ligaments

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dense irregular

irregular collagen fiber arrangement, withstand tension exerted in all directions

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elastic connective tissue

dense regular connective tissue contain elastic fiber, allow recoil after stretching

(walls of arteries)

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hyaline cartilage

firm matrix, collagen fiber form imperceptible network

support and reinforce as cushion

forms most of embryonic skeleton

45

elastic cartilage

similair to hyaline but more elastic fiber

maintains structure while allowing flexibility

ear

46

fibrocartilage

thick collagen fibers, tenseness allows for absorbing shock.

intervertebral disks

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bone

calcified matrix, contains collagen fiber

support and protects

48

blood

atypical connective tissue

transport

49

muscle tissue

responsible for movement, highly vascularized

50

types of muscle tissue

skeletal- voluntary, found in skeletal

cardiac- found in walls of heart, involuntary

smooth- walls of hollow organ except heart, involuntary

51

nervous tissue

branching cells, extend from nucleus

transmit electrical signals

52

lining membrane

cutaneous
mucous
serous

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cutaneous membrane

skin- keratinized epidermis attached to thick connective tissue

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mucous membrane

line body cavity that is open to exterior

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serous membrane

line body cavity that are closed to closed to exterior

closed ventral body cavity

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tissue repair

regeneration- same tissue replace old tissue original function restored

fibrosis- connective tissue replaces old tissue
original function lost

57

step in tissue repair

inflammation

organization restores blood supply

regeneration