Ch1 Human Body Orientation Flashcards Preview

Anatomy And Physiology > Ch1 Human Body Orientation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch1 Human Body Orientation Deck (57):
1

Anatomy

Study of structure

2

Thoracic Cavity

know location

3

Cranial Cavity

know location

4

Abdominal Cavity

know location

5

Vertebral Cavity

know location

6

Muscular system

causes mechanical motion

7

Nervous system

responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses

8

Skeletal System

provides support and levers for muscles to pull

9

Integumentary system

protects underlying organs from environmental damages and synthesizes vitamin D

10

Endocrine System

controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones

11

cardiovascular system

delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues

12

Immune system

produces antibodies that attach to foreign substances

13

lymphatic system

removes and filters excess fluid from tissues

14

Negative feedback

reducing the output or activity of any organ

15

Positive feedback

enhances or exaggerates original stimulus

16

Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues

True

17

The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward
and the thumbs pointing away from the body.

True

18

The elbow is proximal to the shoulder.

false

19

The part of the serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral
peritoneum.

false

20

A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction.

true

21

The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach.

false

22

Lungs carry out an excretory function

true

23

Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception
through old age

false

24

A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.

true

25

It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment
remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it.

true

26

Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body
chemistry in balance.

true

27

Responsiveness or irritability is the ability to sense changes in the environment and then
respond to them.

true

28

The epigastric region is superior to the umbilical region.

true

29

Tissues

similiar cells that have a common function

30

What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean?

"structure determines function."

31

term that describes back of elbow

olecranal

32

term that describes neck region

cervical

33

the heart is ______ to the arm

medial

34

The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of
hearing in the inner ear.

middle ear

35

________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function
of specific organs or organic systems.

physiology

36

What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?

homeostasis

37

Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?

pelvic

38

What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called?

visceral peritoneum

39

________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function.

renal

40

What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?

metabolism

41

What is the function of the serous membranes?

They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls.

42

Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body.

The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away
from the midline.

43

What does gross anatomy study?

Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.

44

Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain your answer.

Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.

45

The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, resulting in an
increase in available oxygen. Comment on this statement

At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is less than at lower levels resulting in a
decrease in oxygen levels. The lower oxygen levels may be inadequate to support cellular
metabolism

46

Why is anatomical terminology necessary?

yes, Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion
when describing the location of body parts.

47

The five unique cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________.

orbital

48

The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________.

responsiveness or excitability

49

What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?

water

50

Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be
continued at life-sustaining rates?

If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body
temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape,
resulting in loss of function

51

What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway
called?

afferent pathway

52

What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?

negative

53

Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable to blunt deceleration in an
automobile accident with seat belts?

The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not
reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection from the
bony pelvis.

54

What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?

The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.

55

Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its
original value or range?

positive feedback

56

What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and
destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?

Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging.

57

Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure?

respiratory system