Flashcards in Ch1 Human Body Orientation Deck (57):
Study of structure
causes mechanical motion
responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses
provides support and levers for muscles to pull
protects underlying organs from environmental damages and synthesizes vitamin D
controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones
delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
produces antibodies that attach to foreign substances
removes and filters excess fluid from tissues
reducing the output or activity of any organ
enhances or exaggerates original stimulus
Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues
The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward
and the thumbs pointing away from the body.
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder.
The part of the serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral
A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction.
The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach.
Lungs carry out an excretory function
Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception
through old age
A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.
It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment
remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it.
Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body
chemistry in balance.
Responsiveness or irritability is the ability to sense changes in the environment and then
respond to them.
The epigastric region is superior to the umbilical region.
similiar cells that have a common function
What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean?
"structure determines function."
term that describes back of elbow
term that describes neck region
the heart is ______ to the arm
The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of
hearing in the inner ear.
________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function
of specific organs or organic systems.
What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?
Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?
What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called?
________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function.
What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?
What is the function of the serous membranes?
They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls.
Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body.
The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away
from the midline.
What does gross anatomy study?
Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.
Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain your answer.
Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.
The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, resulting in an
increase in available oxygen. Comment on this statement
At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is less than at lower levels resulting in a
decrease in oxygen levels. The lower oxygen levels may be inadequate to support cellular
Why is anatomical terminology necessary?
yes, Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion
when describing the location of body parts.
The five unique cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________.
The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________.
responsiveness or excitability
What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?
Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be
continued at life-sustaining rates?
If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body
temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape,
resulting in loss of function
What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway
What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?
Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable to blunt deceleration in an
automobile accident with seat belts?
The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not
reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection from the
What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?
The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its
original value or range?
What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and
destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?
Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging.