Ch. 4 Histology Flashcards Preview

Bio 131 > Ch. 4 Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 4 Histology Deck (38):
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Tissue

group of similar cells that perform a specific function.

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4 types of tissues:

Epithelial,(covers) Connective(supports), Muscle(moves), Nervous(controls)

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epithelial tissue:

tightly packed cells that cover body surface and line organs. (2 subtypes: covering and lining & glandular) SECRETION / ABSORPTION. PROTECTS.

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basement membrane

anchors epithelium to underlying tissue. (sticky polysaccharides)

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3 surfaces of epithelial tissue:

basal, apical, lateral. (can undergo mitosis to replace themselves)

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Epithelial tissue layers:

Simple, stratified, pseudostratified

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simple E:

single layer of cells. (absorption / secretion)

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stratified E:

multiple layers (protection)

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pseudostratified E:

actually simple, appears stratified.

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Epithelial Shape:

squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional. Keratinized, Ciliated, microvilli.

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Glandular Epithelial:

Endocrine and Exocrine glands.

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endocrine glands

ductless glands that produce hormones that get secreted.

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exocrine glands

secrete into skin or body cavities via ducts. Unicellular (Ductless). Multicellular (Ducts)

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Connective Tissue

sparse population of cells scattered through extracellular fluid.

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Main elements of connective:

ground substance, fibres, cells.

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ground substance C:

material between cells. (interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans)

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3 fibres of connective:

collagen, elastin, reticular.

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collagen fibres

tough, strong, protein collagen.

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elastin

stretch and recoil, protein elastin.

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reticular

collagen fibres (more give). Support

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Blast

immature.

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Cyte

mature.

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connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood.

fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, hematopoeitic stem cells.

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4 major groups of connective tissue:

Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, vascualr connective tissue. (blood and lymph)

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Loose connective (3):

Areolar, Adipose, Reticular.

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Dense connective (3):

Elastic, Dense irregular, Dense regular.

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Cartilage: (3)

(Hyaline, Elastic, Fibroelastic) Solid rubbery matrix containing collagen fibres.

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Bone:

calcium/ osteocytes.

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Blood:

Atypical. Support. (erythrocytes, leukocytes, blood plasma)

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Muscle tissue (Skeletal):

Muscle fibres, myofilaments, Long & cylindrical. CONTROLS MOVEMENT. found in skeletal muscles that attach to bone or skin.

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Muscle tissue (Cardiac):

Branching, intercalated discs. Found in walls of heart. Propels blood into circulation.

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Muscle tissue (smooth):

central nuclei, propels substances along internal passageways (peristalsis). INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENT / MUSCLE. found in walls of hollow organs.

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Nervous tissue:

SUPPORT CELLS. transmit nerve impulses. Consists of dendrties and axons. (found in brain, spinal cord.)

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Epithlium layer is where to Connective?

Epithelial layer bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue

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cutaneous membrane:

skin. Keratinized stratified squamous. firmly attached to dermis .

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Mucous membrane:

line all body cavities open to the outside. (digestive, respiratory, urinary)

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Serous membrane:

moist membranes lining ventral body cavities. Pleurae(covers lungs and thoracic walls), Pericardium(encloses the heart), Peritonium(abdomniopelvic viscera).

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Tissue repair: (2)

Regeneration(replaces with same tissue), Fibrosis (profilerates to form scar tissue.)