Ch.3 Cell review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.3 Cell review Deck (71):
1

Plasma membrane

fluid bilayer of lipids (phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids). Selectively permeable.

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Proteins

enzymes, receptors which mediate membrane transport functions

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tight junctions are

impermeable

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Gap junctions

allow cells to communicate

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passive tranpsort

kinetic energy

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active transport

ATP. Energy to transport substance across membrane

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Diffusion

kinetic energy. down a concentration gradient.

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facilitated diffusion

solutes across a membrane by their binding with a membrane carrier protein. kinetic energy (passive transport)

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Osmosis

diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane. LOW TO HIGH water conc. but high to low solute conc. (SALT SUCKS).

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hypertonic

loss of water from cells

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hypotonic

gain of water to cells (lysis maybe)

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primary active transport

sodium, potassium pump.

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secondary active transport

symport or antiport.

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symport

same direction across membrane (secondary active transport)

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antiport

substances move in the opposite direction across membrane

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phagocytosis

large particles. ingest or engulf particles. (vesicular transport)

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pinocytosis

dissolved molecules. small particles across cell membrane

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receptor-mediated endocytosis

engulf molecules attach to receptors on the membrane (active transport)

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concentration and electrical gradients

determine diffusion

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sodium is in

high extracellular conc. 3 pumped into extracellular

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potassium is in

high intracellular conc. (membrane more permeable to potassium) 2 pumped into intracellular

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membrane potential

established when K moving in and out of cell is the same

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cytoplasm

consists of cytosol and all organelles. (Major functional area of the cell)

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cytosol

fluid within cell

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Mitochondria

ATP formation. Cellular respiration

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Ribosomes

RNA, protein synthesis

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rough ER

protein modification

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Vesicles

from the ER transport the proteins to other cell sites

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Smooth ER

synthesizes lipids and steroid molecules. Detoxification, fat metabolism.

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Golgi Apparatus

packages protein secretions for export

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Lysosomes

Hydrolases. Degrade worn out organelles, release ionic calcium.

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Preoxisomes

contain oxidase enzymes. protect cell from free radicals.

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cytoskeleton

microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments.

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microtubules

organize the cytoskeleton, intracellular transport.

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microfilaments

movement of cell parts (motility)

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intermediate filaments

connect other elements

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centrioles

mitotic spindle. cilia/ flagella

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microvilli

increase surface area

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nucleus

control centre

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nuclear envelope

double membrane

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nucleoli

ribosome, synthesis

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Chromatin

proteins and DNA

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chromosomes

condensed chromatin

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cell cycle

events of cell till it divides

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interphase

centriole replication begins. DNA REPLICATES (G1, S, G2,)

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Cell division

consists of two distinct phases: mitosis and cytokenisis

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mitosis

nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase (PMAT)

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cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm

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Gene

DNA provides instructions to synthesize one polypetide chain

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DNA transmits message to RNA via

ribosomes

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protein synthesis involves

transcription and translation

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transcription

synthesis of mRNA

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translation

reading of mRNA by tRNA. Peptide bonding of amino acid to polypeptide chain

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Cytosolic enzymes

degrade proteins

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apoptosis

dispose of damaged cells

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Acetyl COA

molecule used in metabolic process

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Aerobic respiration

cellular respiration that requires oxygen

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Anarobic

cell. respiration that doesn't require oxygen

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Anaphase

chromosome move toward each pole of cell.

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cellular respiration

turns food into usable energy (ATP) glucose + oxygen => CO2 +H20 + ATP (energy)

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centrosome

during mitosis splits and moves to opp. poles of cell. regulates cell cycle.

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Electron transport chain

redox reaction (transfer electrons from electron donor to electron acceptor)

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Integral proteins

proteins permanently attached to membrane (transport channels). cell adhesion.

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Prophase

Strands of chromatin condense into chromosome.

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Metaphase

chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. chromosome replicate and form two sister chromatids.

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Telophase

cell has divided equally into two nuclei. Here we see cleavage furrow.

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phospholipids

choline, phosphate, glycerol, two fatty acids

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cholesterol

peripheral and integral proteins

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peripheral proteins

only attach for a short term to membrane (recognition sites)

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glycolipids

carbohydrate attached. provide energy.

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lipoproteins

allow fat to move inside and outside of the cell. contain both protein and lipids.