Ch.2 chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.2 chemistry Deck (66):
1

Acid

substance that releases or donates hydrogen ions

2

Matter

anything that takes up space

3

energy

capacity to do work (some energy is always unusable or lost as heat in a transformation)

4

potential energy

stored energy

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kinetic energy

energy-free

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types of energy

chemical, electrical, radiant, mechanical

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elements

cannot be decomposed into simpler substances

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four important elements are

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

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atoms

are building blocks of elements

10

where are protons and neutrons located?

nucleus

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number of electrons are

equal to number protons

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atomic number is

number of protons

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mass number

protons + neutrons

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radioactive

unstable

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radioisotopes

decompose to more stable forms (by emitting gama, bata, alpha particles)

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molecule

bonding of two or more of same atoms

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compound

two or more diff. atoms

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mixtures

combination of solutes in solvent

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types of mixtures in order:

solutions, colloids, suspensions

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stability

eight valence shell electrons

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Ionic Bonds

valence shell electrons are completely transferred from one atom to antoher.

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Covalent Bonds

atoms share electrons.

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non-polar

electron pairs shared equally

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polar

electrons shared unequally

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hydrogen bonds

weak bonds, electronegative to electropositive

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chemical reactions

formation breaking or rearrangement of chemical bonds

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anabolic

chemical reaction thats constructive

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catabolic

destructive. phase in metabolism in form of ATP. complex molecules into simpler ones.

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net loss or gain

in every chemical reaction

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exergonic reactions

energy is released

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endergonic

energy absorbed

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equilibrium

stability.

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chemical reactions

when particles collide and valence shell electrons interact

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catalysts, higher temp or reactant concentration

increase chemical reaction rates

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inorganic compounds

do not contain carbon (water, salts, inorganic acids/bases)

36

water

participates in chemical reactions, cushions body organs

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salts

ionic compounds, electrolytes, calcium, phosphorous

38

acids/bases

acids are proton donors. In water they ionize and release hydrogen ions and anions

39

bases

proton acceptors (hydroxide, bicarbonate ion, ammonia)

40

pH

hydrogen ion conc. of a solution. 7 and lower is acidic

41

organic compounds

contain carbon (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid) -> all are synthesized by dehydration synth. and digested by hydrolysis C, H, O in all these

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carbohydrates

building blocks of monosaccharides. (glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose) disaccharide's (sucrose, maltose, lactose) Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen). forms ATP. converted fat for storage.

43

lipids

dissolved in fats, triglycerides, unsatturated fatty chains, saturated fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids

44

triglycerides

composed of fatty acids chains and glycerol. provide insulation

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unsaturated fats

fatty acid chains produce oils

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saturated fatty acids

produce solid fats

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phospholipids

phosphorous containing triglycerides have non-polar and polar portions. found in all plasma membranes.

48

proteins

amino acids, one or more polypeptides, chains, three dimensional structure

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amino acids

joined by peptide bonds form a polypeptide.

50

fibrous proteins

keratin, collagen, a-helix, b-pleated sheet

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globular proteins

enzymes, hormones, antibodies, hemoglobin (all catalysis and molecule transport)

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enzymes

catalysts. increase chem. reactions, decrease activation energy needed.

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proteins denatured b/c

extreme temp. or pH

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nucleic acids

DNA, RNA, nucleotide (consists of nitrogenous base like adenine, cytosine, thymine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group.

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DNA

contains deoxyribose, protein structure, replicates itself exactly before cell division.

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RNA

ribose, DNA's instructions for protein synth.

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Adhesion

water molecules are attracted to other properties.

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anion

ion thats negatively charged

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cation

positively charged

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Cohesion

water molecules attracted to other water molecules

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colloids

dispersed particles dont settle

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dehydration synthesis

monomers join to make polymers. water is removed

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hydrolysis

water is added. polymers break down to monomers

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dipole

opposing electric charges

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electronegative

not a full outer shell

66

solute, solvent, solution

solute dissolved in solvent to make solution