Flashcards in Ch.2 chemistry Deck (66):
substance that releases or donates hydrogen ions
anything that takes up space
capacity to do work (some energy is always unusable or lost as heat in a transformation)
types of energy
chemical, electrical, radiant, mechanical
cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
four important elements are
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
are building blocks of elements
where are protons and neutrons located?
number of electrons are
equal to number protons
atomic number is
number of protons
protons + neutrons
decompose to more stable forms (by emitting gama, bata, alpha particles)
bonding of two or more of same atoms
two or more diff. atoms
combination of solutes in solvent
types of mixtures in order:
solutions, colloids, suspensions
eight valence shell electrons
valence shell electrons are completely transferred from one atom to antoher.
atoms share electrons.
electron pairs shared equally
electrons shared unequally
weak bonds, electronegative to electropositive
formation breaking or rearrangement of chemical bonds
chemical reaction thats constructive
destructive. phase in metabolism in form of ATP. complex molecules into simpler ones.
net loss or gain
in every chemical reaction
energy is released
when particles collide and valence shell electrons interact
catalysts, higher temp or reactant concentration
increase chemical reaction rates
do not contain carbon (water, salts, inorganic acids/bases)
participates in chemical reactions, cushions body organs
ionic compounds, electrolytes, calcium, phosphorous
acids are proton donors. In water they ionize and release hydrogen ions and anions
proton acceptors (hydroxide, bicarbonate ion, ammonia)
hydrogen ion conc. of a solution. 7 and lower is acidic
contain carbon (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid) -> all are synthesized by dehydration synth. and digested by hydrolysis C, H, O in all these
building blocks of monosaccharides. (glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose) disaccharide's (sucrose, maltose, lactose) Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen). forms ATP. converted fat for storage.
dissolved in fats, triglycerides, unsatturated fatty chains, saturated fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids
composed of fatty acids chains and glycerol. provide insulation
fatty acid chains produce oils
saturated fatty acids
produce solid fats
phosphorous containing triglycerides have non-polar and polar portions. found in all plasma membranes.
amino acids, one or more polypeptides, chains, three dimensional structure
joined by peptide bonds form a polypeptide.
keratin, collagen, a-helix, b-pleated sheet
enzymes, hormones, antibodies, hemoglobin (all catalysis and molecule transport)
catalysts. increase chem. reactions, decrease activation energy needed.
proteins denatured b/c
extreme temp. or pH
DNA, RNA, nucleotide (consists of nitrogenous base like adenine, cytosine, thymine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group.
contains deoxyribose, protein structure, replicates itself exactly before cell division.
ribose, DNA's instructions for protein synth.
water molecules are attracted to other properties.
ion thats negatively charged
water molecules attracted to other water molecules
dispersed particles dont settle
monomers join to make polymers. water is removed
water is added. polymers break down to monomers
opposing electric charges
not a full outer shell