Ch 47: Mammalian Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 47: Mammalian Nervous System Deck (33):
1

Central nervous system (CNS)

Brain + spinal cord
Receives somatic and visceral information
Sends efferent commands

2

Afferent PNS

Sensations to the brain - hearing, seeing, tasting, temperature, etc.

3

Efferent PNS

Commands from the brain
Somatic to skeletal muscles
Autonomic to cardiac and smooth muscles

4

Visceral stimuli

Sensation from organs
Ex. stomach, lung, and heart activities

5

Sympathetic (PNS)

Major activity in the body
"Fight or flight"

6

Parasympathetic (PNS)

Relaxation
"Rest and digest"

7

Neurons

Excitable cells

8

Glial cells

Support cells in the brain
Outnumber neurons by 10x

9

Ependymal cells

Cells that release fluid inside and around the brain

10

Astrocytes

Cells that maintain the chemical environment of the brain
Form a barrier
Regulate the synapse
Important for getting glucose into the brain

11

Microglial cells

Brain cells that help in immunity and protection
Clear anything that is unwanted

12

CSF

Fluid between the brain and skull
Bathes and nourished the brain
Acts as a shock absorber

13

The brain

Nervous tissue within the skull
Number of synapse formations matter more than size
Neuron connections are constantly changing
356 areas
Contralateral

14

Frontal lobe

Responsible for precise movement
Planning and execution area
Involves inhibition and excitation

15

Parietal lobe

Responsible for sensation

16

Temporal lobe

Responsible for auditory information

17

Occipital lobe

Responsible for vision

18

Premotor cortex

Frontal lobe
Sends out commands
Muscles send feedback back to this area

19

Primary motor cortex

Frontal lobe
Responsible for planning
Motor homunculus

20

Prefrontal association cortex

Frontal lobe
Responsible for very complex movement and thinking
Complex tasks and cognitive functions

21

Brocca's area

Frontal lobe
Responsible for speech initiation
Act of talking and speech formation

22

Somatosensory cortex

Parietal lobe
Receives info
Conscious awareness of general somatic senses
Precisely localizes the stimulus received
Spatial discrimination
Sensory homunculus

23

Wernicke's area

Parietal lobe
Responsible for listening and understanding language
Speech comprehension
Overlaps in temporal lobe

24

Primary auditory cortex

Temporal lobe
Where we interpret hearing information

25

Primary visual cortex

Occipital lobe
Where we interpret visual information

26

Thalamus

"Relay station" for all synaptic input
Where raw sensory info comes into before being routed
Motor control

27

Hypothalamus

Homeostasis (temp control, thirst, urine output, food, etc.)
Endocrine system role
Regulation of sleep-wake cycle
Formation of memory

28

Cerebellum

"Mini brain"
Maintenance of balance
Coordination and planning of skilled voluntary muscle activities
Ispilateral

29

Cerebrum

Cortex
Lots of motor neurons

30

Seizure

Uncontrolled firing of action potentials in the brain

31

Contralateral Neglect Syndrome

Damage to front parietal lobe
Patient consciously chooses to ignore the left side of the body as if it doesn't exist

32

Split Brain

Severing of the corpus callosum
Done to stop seizures from spreading to other side of the brain

33

Stroke

Cerebral vascular accident
Inefficient amount of oxygen to the brain due to too much fat or high blood vessels