Ch 41: Animal Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 41: Animal Hormones Deck (38):
1

Hormones

A chemical signal that enters the blood and activates targeted cells far from the site of release
Secreted by endocrine cells
Released by neurohormones

2

Peptide/Protein hormones

Water-soluable (hydrophilic)
Easily transportable in blood
Receptors are on the cell's surface
Ex. insulin

3

Steroid hormones

Cholesterol
Lipid soluble
Needs carrier proteins in the blood
Intracellular receptors

4

Amine hormones

Mostly synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine
Can be water-soluble or lipid-soluble
Ex. Epinephrine and Thyroxine

5

Fight or flight response

Response to fear or danger
Heartbeat gets faster and stronger
Blood vessels in the digestive tract constrict throughout the body
Liver releases glucose
Fat releases fattty acids
Epinephrine mediates the response

6

Secretary organs

Endocrine glands that can secrete multiple hormones

7

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Increases water retention by the kidneys

8

Oxytocin

Promotes bonding
Stimulates contractions and milk flow

9

Posterior Pituitary

Extension of the hypothalamus
Doesn't have cells that secrete hormones

10

Anterior Pituitary

Only secretes neurohormones when the hypothalamus says

11

Thyroid gland

Found around the neck
Produces and stores thyroxine and calcitonin

12

Thyroxine

Regulates metabolism
Important for development and growth

13

Calcitonin

Maintains calcium levels
Stimulates the incorporation of calcium into bone

14

TRH

Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Released by the hypothalamus
Stimulates the anterior pituitary

15

TSH

Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Released by the anterior pituitary
Stimulates the thyroid

16

Goiter

An enlarged thyroid gland
Caused by both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

17

Hyperthyroidism

Caused by an excess of thyroxine
Antibody-binding activated TSH receptors on the thyroid and increases thyroxine
Thyroid is continually stimulated

18

Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine deficiency
Reduced metabolic rate
Main cause - iodine deficiency
Thyroid enlarges to compensate low thyroxine

19

Adrenal gland

Cortex + medulla

20

Cortisol

Mediates metabolic response to stress
Secreted by the cortex

21

Aldosterone

Salt water balance
Secreted by the adrenal cortex

22

Epinephrine

Adrenaline
Secreted by the medulla

23

Norepinephrine

Noradrendaline
Fight or flight response
Secreted by the medulla

24

Beta cells

Produce insulin

25

Alpha cells

Produce glucagon

26

Glucagon

Stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose

27

Delta cells

Produce somatostatin

28

Somatostatin

Inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon

29

Diabetes Mellitus

Too much glucose in blood and urine
Increase urine output and dehydration
Can cause numerous health complications

30

Type I Diabetes

Lack of insulin caused by beta cell dysfunction
An autoimmune disease - the body attacks beta cells

31

Type II Diabetes

Insulin responsiveness deficiency

32

Androgens

Male hormones

33

Estrogens and progesterone

Female hormones
Synthesized from testosterone by aromatase

34

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Stimulates the anterior pituitary during testosterone regulation

35

Luteinizing hormone

Secreted by the anterior pituitary
Stimulates the ovary
Involved in testosterone overuse in women

36

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone
Secreted by the anterior pituitary
Stimulates the ovary
Involved in testosterone overuse in women

37

Adrenal medulla

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38

Adrenal cortex

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