Ch 46: Sensory Systems Flashcards Preview

LS 2 > Ch 46: Sensory Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 46: Sensory Systems Deck (39):
1

Na+/K+ Pump

Actively moves Na+ out and K+ in
Pumps so that more K+ ions are inside the cell

2

Membrane potential

Determined by electric charges
More positive charges are outside and more negative are inside
A rapid, positive going change in charge

3

Hyperpolarization

When the charge of the inside of the cell drops lower than resting potential

4

Sensory system

Sensory cells + sensory organs + neural network

5

Sensory receptors

Receptors that respond to stimuli by directly or indirectly opening or closing ion channels

6

Ionotropic

Directly affect ion channels
Produce small and quick effects
Electro-, mechano-, and thermo-receptors

7

Metabotropic

Indirectly affect ion channels through messengers
Require a G-protein and second messenger
Produce large and long effects because the process is amplified
Chemo- and photo-receptors

8

Intensity of a sensation

Coded as the frequency of action potentials

9

Adaptation

Diminishing response to repeated stimulation
Enable species to ignore background conditions but remain sensitive to new stimuli

10

Taste classes

Salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami (MSD taste)

11

-Osmias

Disorders of smell

12

-Geusias

Disorders of taste

13

Somatosensory system

Responds to touch and pressure
Involves mechanoreceptors
Senses position and movement through the stimulation of stretch receptors in muscles and joints

14

Muscle spindles

Mechanoreceptors in muscles
Specialized muscle cells
Have sensory neurons wrapped around them
Stretch triggers a change in the ion channels

15

Golgi tendon organs

Mechanoreceptors in joints
Sense muscle contraction
Is an inhibitor mechanism
Responds to tendon pulls
Is a balancing point

16

Auditory system

Sound-perceiving system
Hair cells are the mechanoreceptors
Sounds are pressure waves that are converted into changes in resting potentials

17

Stereocilia

Fingerlike extensions of the cell membrane
Receive cilia

18

Tympanic membrane

Eardrum
Converts sound waves to vibrations

19

Ossicles

Stapes + Incus + Malleus
"The little bones"

20

Vestibular system

Equilibrium-maintaining system
Hair cells are the mechanoreceptors
Has 3 semicircular canals at angles to each other
Deal with balance, posture, and acceleration

21

Malleus

"the hammer"
Directly in touch with the tympanic membrane

22

Incus

"the anvil"

23

Stapes

"the stirrup"
Bone that vibrates the oval window

24

Cochlea

A tapered and coiled chamber composed of 3 parallel canals
Full of fluid
When it vibrates, there are waves
Responsible for hearing

25

Oval window

Connects the middle ear to the inner ear

26

Organ of Corti

Transduces pressure waves into action potentials
Changes how much chemical is released
When the stereocilia bend, the ion channel either fully opens or closes
Uses receptor potential

27

Tectorial membrane

Thick membrane that keeps the stereo cilia in place

28

Conduction deafness

Loss of function of the tympanic membrane and/or the middle ear

29

Nerve deafness

Damage to hair cells or auditory nerve pathways

30

Otoliths

"ear stones"
Calcium carbonate deposits on top of hair cells
Help bend hair cells
Translate to membrane potential
Amplify the force of gravity
Respond to process acceleration

31

Ciliary muscle

Allows the shape of the eye lens to change

32

Pupil

Allows light to go through to get detected in the eye
Size is controlled by the iris
Contracts when there is too much light

33

Lens

Projects the image to the back of the eye

34

Fovea

Contains the highest concentration of sensory cells in the eye
Where the image seen is projected
Cones only
Where our highest acuity is

35

Retina

Where photoreceptors are located

36

Myopia

Disease where the lenses cannot adjust appropriately
Nearsighted

37

Hyperopia

Disease where the lens adjusts too much
Image gets projected behind the fovea
Farsighted

38

Rod cells

Highly light-sensitive cells
Black and white vision
In the dark, sodium channels are open (depolarization)

39

Cone cells

Function at high light levels
Responsible for color vision