Ch 49: Gas Exchange (Respiratory System) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 49: Gas Exchange (Respiratory System) Deck (21):
1

How do organisms exchange O2 and CO2?

By diffusing along their concentration gradients

2

Factors that determine diffusion rates

Medium
Surface area
Concentration gradient
Diffusion path length

3

Ventilation

Breathing
By maximizing ability to bring fresh air to the surface, we increase the concentration gradient
Actively moving high O2 and low CO2 to the surface

4

Perfusion

Actively moving blood containing low O2 and high CO2 to the surface

5

Nasal passage and oral cavity

Bring air in and join together at the pharynx

6

Larynx

Voice box

7

Trachea

Gas pipe

8

Diaphragm

Seals cavity at the bottom of the lungs

9

Site of gas exchange

The alveoli

10

What facilitates gas exchange?

Thin walled alveoli and capillaries

11

Emphysema

Most lethal lung disease
Inflammation damages and destroys walls of alveoli
Functional areas of the lungs are reduced
Causes - smoking and genetics

12

Mucus escalator disorder

When the cilia in the mouth do not bring up the dust and particles
Main cause - smoking

13

Surfactant

Detergent like substances that reduce lung surface tension and facilitate inflation

14

Respiratory distress syndrome

When premature babies' lungs don't function properly
Surfactant isn't present
Must use respirator until it develops

15

Inhalation

Bringing in air
Diaphragm contracts and pulls down
Lungs and the thoracic cavity expand

16

Exhalation

Releasing air
Diaphragm relaxes and moves up
Lungs and thoracic cavity contract

17

Hemoglobin

Carries O2 in the blood
Has 4 polypeptide subunits that can each reversibly bind to oxygen

18

Myoglobin

Single polypeptide molecule
Has a high affinity for O2
Transfers O2 from blood to muscles
Provides a reserve for high metabolic demand for O2

19

Carbonic anhydrase

Mediates reversible conversion between CO2 and HCO3

20

Dorsal medulla

Innervates the diaphragm
Initiates inhalation
Controls the respiratory system

21

Ventral medulla

Regulates muscles that expand or contract the rub cage
Control both inhalation and exhalation