Flashcards in CH 9&10 Extra Practice Deck (29):
A cooling process that does not kill spores and is used commonly for food preservation.
Uses moist heat. For this process the temperature is usually 72 degrees C for 15 seconds. It doesn’t kill spores and is commonly used for fresh beverages.
Uses dry heat at a temperature ranging between 160 - 171 degrees C. This process kills spores after about 1 – 2 hrs and is commonly used for glassware and metals.
The process uses steam under pressure at 121 degrees C. It can kill spores after 15 minutes and also uses heat and moisture media and materials.
A dehydration process that does not kill spores and is commonly used for food preservation.
Uses moist heat at 100 degrees C and does not kill spores. It used for drinking water, baby materials, utensils, and food
d. Boiling Water
Uses dry heat at temperatures above 1000 degrees C. This process kills spores and is used on materials such as metal, glass, needles, syringes, dressings and animal carcasses.
-Chemical changes in
-Produces toxic substances -Heat and chemical sensitive
vaccines, gloves, and
-Bone and skin tissue.
-Heart valves for grafting.
UV 260 nm
- Sporocidal or
and transcription. -Disinfection of Air:
~Hospitals, schools, dental
- Not microbial
- Fluid passes through filters with pores that exclude microbes and particulates.
- Heat sensitive Liquids: serum, vaccines, media, and enzymes.
Denatures proteins and attaches to DNA. It is used for medical and dental instruments and to preserve vaccines.
Disrupts cell wall and membranes. Also denatures proteins and is used in drains, cesspools, and animal quarters.
Binds to DNA and proteins (denatures) and is used for surgical supplies, disposable Petri plates, dried foods, drugs, and disinfect sugar.
b. Ethylene oxide gas
Binds to protein and denatures it. Used as topical body germicide and is incorporated into plastics or steel for toilet seats, stethoscopes and refrigerator doors.
Denatures proteins and is used to sterilize drinking water and in senate offices after the anthrax attacks in 2001
c. Chlorine dioxide gas
Denatures proteins and is used to disinfect instruments and in embalming fluid.
It is a toxic free radical that is used for skin and wound cleansing.
a. Hydrogen peroxide
Denatures proteins. Used for disinfection of drinking water, sewage and for food equipment and pools.
f. Chlorine halogen
Used on skin before surgery and for disinfection of plastics, rubber, cutting blades, and thermometers. Denatures proteins.
Binds to protein and denatures it. 0.001-0.2% to preserve vaccines and is also toxic to humans in minute doses.
Disrupts membranes. Used to disinfect and sanitize floors, restrooms, eating utensils, clothing, and food-processing equipment.
Used in industry, home, medical, and on the skin by sudsing to help in physical removal.
Disrupts membranes and denatures proteins. It is used for skin antiseptic (ethanol) and for electrodes, face masks, and thermometers.
What type of efficacy test uses zones of inhibition?
Kirby-Bauer Diffusion Susceptibility Test
What is a MIC test? What are the 2 types of MIC tests?
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Test. Broth Dilution test & Etest
What is the relationship between broad spectrum antibiotics, opportunistic pathogens, & superinfections?
Broad spectrum antibiotics will kill lots of normal microbiota, possibly allowing an opportunistic pathogen (pathogen already in body) to overgrow, causing a superinfection.
Define drug resistance
An adaptive response where the population contains increasing numbers of antimicrobial resistant microbes.
What are six mechanisms that make a microbe drug resistant?
1 – Enzymes inactivate drug
2 – Drug entry decreased or eliminated
3 – Drug pumped out of cell
4 – Drug binding sites decrease in number of affinity
5 – Alternative metabolic pathway used
6 – Biofilms slow down diffusion of drugs to microbes and the microbes themselves can have lower metabolic rates