CH 9&10 Extra Practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 9&10 Extra Practice Deck (29):
1

A cooling process that does not kill spores and is used commonly for food preservation.

Freezing

2

Uses moist heat. For this process the temperature is usually 72 degrees C for 15 seconds. It doesn’t kill spores and is commonly used for fresh beverages.

Pasteurization

3

Uses dry heat at a temperature ranging between 160 - 171 degrees C. This process kills spores after about 1 – 2 hrs and is commonly used for glassware and metals.

Oven

4

The process uses steam under pressure at 121 degrees C. It can kill spores after 15 minutes and also uses heat and moisture media and materials.

Autoclave

5

A dehydration process that does not kill spores and is commonly used for food preservation.

b. Desiccation

6

Uses moist heat at 100 degrees C and does not kill spores. It used for drinking water, baby materials, utensils, and food

d. Boiling Water

7

Uses dry heat at temperatures above 1000 degrees C. This process kills spores and is used on materials such as metal, glass, needles, syringes, dressings and animal carcasses.

Incineration

8

Gama-Ray
X-Ray
Cathode-Ray
-Sporocidal
-DNA Mutation
-Chemical changes in
organelles
-Produces toxic substances -Heat and chemical sensitive
materials.
-Medical supplies:
vaccines, gloves, and
instruments.
-Bone and skin tissue.
-Heart valves for grafting.
-Mail

Ionizing

9

UV 260 nm
- Sporocidal or
microbistatic.
-Pyrimidine Dimers
Abnormal replication
and transcription. -Disinfection of Air:
~Food preparation
~Hospitals, schools, dental
offices.

Non-ionizing

10

- Not microbial
- Fluid passes through filters with pores that exclude microbes and particulates.
- Heat sensitive Liquids: serum, vaccines, media, and enzymes.
-Air

Filtration

11

Denatures proteins and attaches to DNA. It is used for medical and dental instruments and to preserve vaccines.


Glutaraldehyde

12

Disrupts cell wall and membranes. Also denatures proteins and is used in drains, cesspools, and animal quarters.

Phenolics

13

Binds to DNA and proteins (denatures) and is used for surgical supplies, disposable Petri plates, dried foods, drugs, and disinfect sugar.

b. Ethylene oxide gas

14

Binds to protein and denatures it. Used as topical body germicide and is incorporated into plastics or steel for toilet seats, stethoscopes and refrigerator doors.

Silver metal

15

Denatures proteins and is used to sterilize drinking water and in senate offices after the anthrax attacks in 2001

c. Chlorine dioxide gas

16

Denatures proteins and is used to disinfect instruments and in embalming fluid.

e. Formaldehyde

17

It is a toxic free radical that is used for skin and wound cleansing.

a. Hydrogen peroxide

18

Denatures proteins. Used for disinfection of drinking water, sewage and for food equipment and pools.

f. Chlorine halogen

19

Used on skin before surgery and for disinfection of plastics, rubber, cutting blades, and thermometers. Denatures proteins.

Iodine halogen

20

Binds to protein and denatures it. 0.001-0.2% to preserve vaccines and is also toxic to humans in minute doses.

Mercury metals

21

Disrupts membranes. Used to disinfect and sanitize floors, restrooms, eating utensils, clothing, and food-processing equipment.

Detergent

22

Used in industry, home, medical, and on the skin by sudsing to help in physical removal.

Soaps

23

Disrupts membranes and denatures proteins. It is used for skin antiseptic (ethanol) and for electrodes, face masks, and thermometers.

Alcohols

24

What type of efficacy test uses zones of inhibition?


Kirby-Bauer Diffusion Susceptibility Test

25

What is a MIC test? What are the 2 types of MIC tests?

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Test. Broth Dilution test & Etest

26

What is the relationship between broad spectrum antibiotics, opportunistic pathogens, & superinfections?


Broad spectrum antibiotics will kill lots of normal microbiota, possibly allowing an opportunistic pathogen (pathogen already in body) to overgrow, causing a superinfection.

27

Define drug resistance


An adaptive response where the population contains increasing numbers of antimicrobial resistant microbes.

28

What are six mechanisms that make a microbe drug resistant?

1 – Enzymes inactivate drug
2 – Drug entry decreased or eliminated
3 – Drug pumped out of cell
4 – Drug binding sites decrease in number of affinity
5 – Alternative metabolic pathway used
6 – Biofilms slow down diffusion of drugs to microbes and the microbes themselves can have lower metabolic rates

29

What are four strategies that will slow down drug resistance?


1 – Take drug until prescription ends
2 – Use more than 1 drug together
3 – Do not overuse drug
4 – Develop new drugs